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THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT CONSTITUTION
THE NATIONAL ISREAELITE GOVERNMENT

THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION IS A NATIONAL INDIGENOUS ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY BRANCH OF THE MOST HIGH SUPREME COURT OF ISRAELITE JUSTICE

OUR SUPERIOR COURT CIVIL LITIGATION PROCEEDINGS FOLLOW THE SAME COURT PROCEDURES & FORMS AS THE SUPERIOR COURT OF JUSTICE OF ONTARIO.

ONLY DIFFERENCE IS: OUR ISRAELITE COURT OF JUSTICE WAS ORDAINED BY THE MOST HIGH ALMIGHTY HEAVENLY FATHER GOD TO ADMINISTER WORLD JUSTICE ONTO ALL NATIONS AS PROPHESIED IN THE KING JAMES BIBLE DEUTERONOMY 28:1, AND OUR ISRAELITE JUDGES & PRIESTS ADMINISTER MORE RIGHTEOUS JUDGEMENTS THAN ANY OTHER NATION'S JUDICIAL SYSTEM BASED ON ONE PRINCIPLE FACTOR:

OUR JUDGEMENTS ARE GUIDED BY THE HEAVENLY ANGELS SENT TO GUIDE OUR DECISIONS WITH THE RIGHTEOUS JUDGEMENTS & STRUCTURE, LAWS, STATUTES & COMMANDMENTS GIVEN TO US DIRECTLY FROM THE MOST HIGH ALMIGHTY HEAVENLY FATHER GOD OF ALL CREATION; YAHAYAH.

SUPERIOR COURT OF JUSTICE
SUPERIOR COURT OF JUSTICE

Superior Court: Rules & Procedures for filing Civil Lawsuit Forms

 

 

Electronic versions of forms under the Rules of Civil Procedure , R.R.O. 1990, Regulation 194 , are available in the table below in HTML or Adobe and Microsoft Word formats. Please note that to complete your court document, you may need to combine several of the forms listed below.

 

Click the following link for pre-formatted, fillable estates forms.

Many of the Rules of Civil Procedure forms contain the phrase “General heading”. General headings are separate forms which must be inserted where this phrase appears (Form 4A for actions, and Form 4B for applications). Also, most court documents must also end with a “backsheet” (Form 4C). For example, a typical Statement of Claim requires the following combination of forms:

  • Form 4A - General Heading (for actions),
  • Form 14A - Statement of Claim, and
  • Form4C - Backsheet.

Your completed form should be in 12 point (or 10 pitch) size, or neatly printed, with double spaces between the lines and a left-hand margin approximately 40 mm wide. See Rule 4 of the Rules of Civil Procedure for further requirements.

Court forms must be printed and filed in hardcopy at the court office unless the Rules of Civil Procedure allow the court form to be filed electronically through the Civil Claims Online Portal.  To learn which forms may be filed electronically, refer to the Rules of Civil Procedure.  Additional information can be found on the Government of Ontario website.

 

Rules of Civil Procedure Forms
Form NumberForm TitleVersion DateEffective DateHTML/PDF FormMS Word Form
2.1ANotice that Proceeding (or Motion) may be Stayed or DismissedJan. 23, 2014July 1, 2014 rcp-2-1a-e.pdf RCP-E-2-1A-0114.doc
4AGeneral Heading of Documents - ActionsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_04A_1105.htm RCP_E_04A_1105.doc
4BGeneral Heading of Documents - ApplicationsApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-4b-e.pdf RCP-E-04B-0412.doc
4CBacksheetMay 1, 2016Aug. 1, 2016 rcp-4c-e-0516.pdf rcp-e-04c-0516.doc
4DAffidavitJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-4d-e.pdf RCP_E_04D_0707.doc
4ERequisitionJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-4e-e.pdf RCP_E_04E_0707.doc
4FNotice of Constitutional QuestionApril 11, 2012April 19, 2012 rcp-4f-e.pdf RCP-E-04F-0412.doc
7ARequest for Appointment of Litigation GuardianJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-7a-e.pdf RCP_E_07A_0707.doc
7BOrder to Continue (Minor Reaching Age of Majority)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_07B_1105.htm RCP_E_07B_1105.doc
8ANotice to Alleged PartnerJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-8a-e.pdf RCP_E_08A_0707.doc
11AOrder to Continue (Transfer or Transmission of Interest)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_11A_1105.htm RCP_E_11A_1105.doc
14AStatement of Claim (General)June 9, 2014Jan. 1, 2015 rcp-14a-e.pdf RCP-E-14A-0614.doc
14BStatement of Claim (Mortgage Action - Foreclosure)June 9, 2014Jan. 1, 2015 rcp-14b-e.pdf RCP-E-14B-0614.doc
14CNotice of ActionJune 9, 2014Jan. 1, 2015 rcp-14c-e.pdf RCP-E-14C-0614.doc
14DStatement of Claim (Action Commenced by Notice of Action)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-14d-e.pdf RCP_E_14D_0707.doc
14ENotice of ApplicationMarch 31, 2010July 1, 2010 rcp-14e-e.pdf RCP-E-14E-0310.doc
14E.1Notice of Application under Subsection 140(3) of the Courts of Justice ActJan. 23, 2014July 1, 2014 rcp-14e-1-e.pdf RCP-E-14E-1-0114.doc
14FInformation for Court UseSept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-14f-0918.docx
14FInformation for Court UseMay 1, 2019Jan. 1, 2020 rcp-14f-e-0519.pdf rcp-e-14f-0519.docx
15ANotice of Change of LawyerJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-15a-e.pdf RCP_E_15A_0707.doc
15BNotice of Appointment of LawyerJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-15b-e.pdf RCP_E_15B_0707.doc
15CNotice of Intention to Act in PersonJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-15c-e.pdf RCP_E_15C_0707.doc
16AAcknowledgment of Receipt CardNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_16A_1105.htm RCP_E_16A_1105.doc
16BAffidavit of ServiceMay 1, 2016Aug. 1, 2016 rcp-16b-e-0516.pdf rcp-e-16b-0516.doc
16CCertificate of Service by SheriffNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_16C_1105.htm RCP_E_16C_1105.doc
17ARequest for Service Abroad of Judicial or Extrajudicial DocumentsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-17a-e.pdf RCP_E_17A_1105.doc
17BSummary of the Document to be ServedNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-17b-e.pdf RCP_E_17B_1105.doc
17CNotice and Summary of DocumentNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-17c-e.pdf RCP_E_17C_1105.doc
18AStatement of DefenceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-18a-e.pdf RCP_E_18A_0707.doc
18BNotice of Intent to DefendJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-18b-e.pdf RCP_E_18B_0707.doc
19ADefault Judgment (Debt or Liquidated Demand)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_19A_1105.htm RCP_E_19A_1105.doc
19BDefault Judgment (Recovery of Possession of Land)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_19B_1105.htm RCP_E_19B_1105.doc
19CDefault Judgment (Recovery of Possession of Personal Property)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_19C_1105.htm RCP_E_19C_1105.doc
19DRequisition for Default JudgmentJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-19d-e.pdf RCP_E_19D_0707.doc
22ASpecial CaseJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-22a-e.pdf RCP_E_22A_0707.doc
23ANotice of DiscontinuanceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-23a-e.pdf RCP_E_23A_0707.doc
23BNotice of Election to Proceed with CounterclaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-23b-e.pdf RCP_E_23B_0707.doc
23CNotice of Withdrawal of DefenceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-23c-e.pdf RCP_E_23C_0707.doc
24.1ANotice of Name of Mediator and Date of SessionApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-24-1a-e.pdf RCP-E-24-1A-0412.doc
24.1BNotice by Assigned MediatorNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_24.1B_1105.htm RCP_E_24.1B_1105.doc
24.1CStatement of IssuesNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_24.1C_1105.htm RCP_E_24.1C_1105.doc
24.1DCertificate of Non-ComplianceNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_24.1D_1105.htm RCP_E_24.1D_1105.doc
25AReplyJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-25a-e.pdf RCP_E_25A_0707.doc
27ACounterclaim (Against Parties to Main Action Only)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-27a-e.pdf RCP_E_27A_0707.doc
27BCounterclaim (Against Plaintiff and Person not Already Party to Main Action)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-27b-e.pdf RCP_E_27B_0707.doc
27CDefence to CounterclaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-27c-e.pdf RCP_E_27C_0707.doc
27DReply to Defence to CounterclaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-27d-e.pdf RCP_E_27D_0707.doc
28ACrossclaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-28a-e.pdf RCP_E_28A_0707.doc
28BDefence to CrossclaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-28b-e.pdf RCP_E_28B_0707.doc
28CReply to Defence to CrossclaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-28c-e.pdf RCP_E_28C_0707.doc
29AThird Party ClaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-29a-e.pdf RCP_E_29A_0707.doc
29BThird Party DefenceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-29b-e.pdf RCP_E_29B_0707.doc
29CReply to Third Party DefenceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-29c-e.pdf RCP_E_29C_0707.doc
30AAffidavit of Documents (Individual)Nov. 1, 2008Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-30a-e.pdf RCP-E-30A-1108.doc
30BAffidavit of Documents (Corporation or Partnership)Nov. 1, 2008Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-30b-e.pdf RCP-E-30B-1108.doc
30CRequest to Inspect DocumentsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-30c-e.pdf RCP_E_30C_0707.doc
34ANotice of ExaminationJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-34a-e.pdf RCP_E_34A_0707.doc
34BSummons to Witness (Examination out of Court)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-34b-e.pdf rcp-e-34b-0707-a.doc
34CCommissionNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_34C_1105.htm RCP_E_34C_1105.doc
34DLetter of RequestNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_34D_1105.htm RCP_E_34D_1105.doc
34EOrder for Commission and Letter of RequestNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_34E_1105.htm RCP_E_34E_1105.doc
35AQuestions on Written Examination for DiscoveryJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-35a-e.pdf RCP_E_35A_0707.doc
35BAnswers on Written Examination for DiscoveryNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_35B_1105.htm RCP_E_35B_1105.doc
37ANotice of MotionJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-37a-e.pdf RCP_E_37A_0707.doc
37BConfirmation of MotionSept. 1, 2018Jan. 1, 2019 rcp-e-37b-0918.doc
37CRefusals and Undertakings ChartNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-37c-e.pdf RCP_E_37C_1105.doc
38ANotice of AppearanceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-38a-e.pdf RCP_E_38A_0707.doc
38BConfirmation of ApplicationJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-38b-e.pdf RCP_E_38B_0707.doc
42ACertificate of Pending LitigationNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_42A_1105.htm RCP_E_42A_1105.doc
43AInterpleader Order - GeneralNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_43A_1105.htm RCP_E_43A_1105.doc
44ABond - Interim Recovery of Personal PropertyNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_44A_1105.htm RCP_E_44A_1105.doc
47AJury NoticeJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-47a-e.pdf RCP_E_47A_0707.doc
48CStatus NoticeJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-48c-e.pdf RCP_E_48C_0707.doc
48C.1Status Notice: Action Not on a Trial ListJuly 30, 2009Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-48c-1-e.pdf RCP-E-48C1-0709.doc
48C.2Status Notice: Action Struck From Trial ListNov. 1, 2008Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-48c-2-e.pdf RCP-E-48C2-1108.doc
48DOrder Dismissing Action for DelayNov. 1, 2016Dec. 23, 2016 rcp-e-48d-1116.htm rcp-e-48d-1116.doc
49AOffer to SettleJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-49a-e.pdf RCP_E_49A_0707.doc
49BNotice of Withdrawal of OfferJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-49b-e.pdf RCP_E_49B_0707.doc
49CAcceptance of OfferJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-49c-e.pdf RCP_E_49C_0707.doc
49DOffer to ContributeJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-49d-e.pdf RCP_E_49D_0707.doc
51ARequest to AdmitJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-51a-e.pdf RCP_E_51A_0707.doc
51BResponse to Request to AdmitJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-51b-e.pdf RCP_E_51B_0707.doc
53Acknowledgment of Expert's DutyJuly 22, 2014March 31, 2015 rcp-53-e.pdf RCP-E-53-0722.doc
53ASummons to Witness (at Hearing)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-53a-e.pdf RCP_E_53A_0707.doc
53BWarrant for Arrest (Defaulting Witness)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_53B_1105.htm RCP_E_53B_1105.doc
53CSummons to a Witness Outside OntarioJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-53c-e.pdf RCP_E_53C_0707.doc
53DOrder for Attendance of Witness in CustodyNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_53D_1105.htm RCP_E_53D_1105.doc
55ANotice of Hearing for DirectionsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-55a-e.pdf RCP_E_55A_0707.doc
55BNotice to Party Added on ReferenceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-55b-e.pdf RCP_E_55B_0707.doc
55CReport on Reference (Administration of Estate)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_55C_1105.htm RCP_E_55C_1105.doc
55DNotice of Contested ClaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-55d-e.pdf RCP_E_55D_0707.doc
55ENotice to CreditorApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-55e-e.pdf RCP-E-55E-0412.doc
55FConditions of SaleJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-55f-e.pdf RCP_E_55F_0707.doc
55GInterim Report on SaleNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_55G_1105.htm RCP_E_55G_1105.doc
56AOrder for Security for CostsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_56A_1105.htm RCP_E_56A_1105.doc
57ABill of CostsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_57A_1105.htm RCP_E_57A_1105.doc
57BCosts OutlineJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-57b-e.pdf RCP_E_57B_0707.doc
58ANotice of Appointment for Assessment of CostsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 RCP_E_58A_0707.pdf RCP_E_58A_0707.doc
58BNotice to Deliver a Bill of Costs for AssessmentJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 RCP_E_58B_0707.pdf RCP_E_58B_0707.doc
58CCertificate of Assessment of CostsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_58C_1105.htm RCP_E_58C_1105.doc
59AOrderJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-59a-e.pdf RCP_E_59A_0707.doc
59BJudgmentJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-59b-e.pdf RCP_E_59B_0707.doc
59COrder on AppealJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-59c-e.pdf RCP_E_59C_0707.doc
59DNotice of Appointment to Settle OrderNov. 1, 2016March 27, 2017 rcp-e-59d.doc
60AWrit of Seizure and SaleJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-60a-e.pdf RCP_E_60A_0707.doc
60BWrit of SequestrationNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60B_1105.htm RCP_E_60B_1105.doc
60CWrit of PossessionNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60C_1105.htm RCP_E_60C_1105.doc
60DWrit of DeliveryNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60D_1105.htm RCP_E_60D_1105.doc
60ERequest to RenewJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-60e-e.pdf RCP_E_60E_0707.doc
60FDirection to Enforce Writ of Seizure and SaleNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60F_1105.htm RCP_E_60F_1105.doc
60GRequisition for GarnishmentNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60G_1105.htm RCP_E_60G_1105.doc
60G.1Requisition for Renewal of GarnishmentNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-e-60g1-1105.htm rcp-e-60g1-1105.doc
60HNotice of GarnishmentMay 1, 2019Oct. 23, 2019 rcp-60h-e.pdf rcp-e-60h-0519.doc
60H.1Notice of Renewal of GarnishmentMay 1, 2019Oct. 23, 2019 rcp-60h-1-e.pdf rcp-e-60h1-0519.doc
60IGarnishee’s StatementNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60I_1105.htm RCP_E_60I_1105.doc
60I.1Notice to Co-owner of the DebtApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-60i-1-e.pdf RCP-E-60I-1-0412.doc
60JNotice of Termination of GarnishmentJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-60j-e.pdf RCP_E_60J_0707.doc
60KWarrant for Arrest (Contempt)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60K_1105.htm RCP_E_60K_1105.doc
60LWarrant of CommittalNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60L_1105.htm RCP_E_60L_1105.doc
60MNotice of ClaimJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-60m-e.pdf RCP_E_60M_0707.doc
60NSheriff’s ReportJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-60n-e.pdf RCP_E_60N_0707.doc
60ORequest to Withdraw a WritNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_60O_1105.htm RCP_E_60O_1105.doc
61ANotice of Appeal to an Appellate CourtSept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-61a-0918.docx
61A.1Notice of Appeal to the Divisional CourtSept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-61a-1-0918.doc
61BGeneral Heading in Proceedings in Appellate CourtsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_61B_1105.htm RCP_E_61B_1105.doc
61CAppellant’s Certificate Respecting EvidenceNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_61C_1105.htm RCP_E_61C_1105.doc
61DRespondent’s Certificate Respecting EvidenceNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_61D_1105.htm RCP_E_61D_1105.doc
61ENotice of Cross-AppealJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-61e-e.pdf RCP_E_61E_0707.doc
61FSupplementary Notice of Appeal or Cross-AppealJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-61f-e.pdf RCP_E_61F_0707.doc
61GNotice of Listing for Hearing (Appeal)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-61g-e.pdf RCP_E_61G_1105.doc
61HCertificate of Completeness of Appeal Book and CompendiumJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-61h-e.pdf RCP_E_61H_0707.doc
61IOrder Dismissing Appeal or Cross-Appeal for DelayNov. 1, 2016March 27, 2017 rcp-e-61i.doc
61I.1Order Dismissing Appeal to Divisional Court for DelaySept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-61i-1-0918.doc
61JOrder Dismissing Motion for Leave to Appeal for DelayJuly 30, 2009Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-61j-e.pdf RCP-E-61J-0709.doc
61J.1Order Dismissing Motion for DelayJuly 30, 2009Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-61j-1-e.pdf RCP-E-61J1-0709.doc
61KNotice of Abandonment of Appeal or Cross-AppealJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-61k-e.pdf RCP_E_61K_0707.doc
61LNotice of Election to Proceed with Cross-AppealJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-61l-e.pdf RCP_E_61L_0707.doc
62ANotice of Appeal to a JudgeJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-62a-e.pdf RCP_E_62A_0707.doc
63ACertificate of StayNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_63A_1105.htm RCP_E_63A_1105.doc
63BCertificate of StayNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_63B_1105.htm RCP_E_63B_1105.doc
64ARequest to RedeemJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-64a-e.pdf RCP_E_64A_0707.doc
64BDefault Judgment for Foreclosure with a ReferenceNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64B_1105.htm RCP_E_64B_1105.doc
64CDefault Judgment for Immediate ForeclosureNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64C_1105.htm RCP_E_64C_1105.doc
64DDefault Judgment for Foreclosure without a ReferenceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-64d-e.pdf RCP_E_64D_0707.doc
64EFinal Order of ForeclosureJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-64e-e.pdf RCP_E_64E_0707.doc
64FRequest for SaleJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-64f-e.pdf RCP_E_64F_0707.doc
64GDefault Judgment for Sale with a Redemption Period (Action Converted from Foreclosure to Sale)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64G_1105.htm RCP_E_64G_1105.doc
64HDefault Judgment for Immediate Sale (Action Converted from Foreclosure to Sale)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64H_1105.htm RCP_E_64H_1105.doc
64IDefault Judgment for Sale Conditional on Proof of Claim (Action Converted from Foreclosure to Sale)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 CP_E_64I_1105.htm RCP_E_64I_1105.doc
64JDefault Judgment for Immediate SaleNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64J_1105.htm RCP_E_64J_1105.doc
64KDefault Judgment for Sale with a Redemption PeriodNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64K_1105.htm RCP_E_64K_1105.doc
64LFinal Order for SaleJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 RCP_E_64L_0707.pdf RCP_E_64L_0707.doc
64MDefault Judgment for RedemptionNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64M_1105.htm RCP_E_64M_1105.doc
64NNotice of Reference to Subsequent Encumbrancer Added on ReferenceNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64N_1105.htm RCP_E_64N_1105.doc
64ONotice of Reference to Subsequent Encumbrancer Named as Original PartyNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64O_1105.htm RCP_E_64O_1105.doc
64PNotice of Reference to Original DefendantsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64P_1105.htm RCP_E_64P_1105.doc
64QNotice to Added Defendant Having Interest in EquityNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_64Q_1105.htm RCP_E_64Q_1105.doc
65AJudgment for Administration of EstateNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_65A_1105.htm RCP_E_65A_1105.doc
66AJudgment for Partition or SaleNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_66A_1105.htm RCP_E_66A_1105.doc
68ANotice of Application to Divisional Court for Judicial ReviewSept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-68a-0918.docx
68BNotice of Listing for Hearing (Judicial Review)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-68b-e.pdf RCP_E_68B_1105.doc
68COrder Dismissing Application for Judicial ReviewJuly 30, 2009Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-68c-e.pdf RCP-E-68C-0709.doc
68DOrder Dismissing Application for Judicial Review for DelaySept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-68d-0918.doc
72ANotice of Payment into CourtJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-72a-e.pdf RCP_E_72A_0707.doc
72BAffidavit (Motion for Payment Out of Court)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-72b-e.pdf RCP_E_72B_0707.doc
72CStop OrderJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-72c-e.pdf RCP_E_72C_0707.doc
73ANotice of Application for Registration of United Kingdom JudgmentApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-73a-e.pdf RCP-E-73A-0412.doc
74.01Notice to Estate Registrar of Deposit of Will or CodicilNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-1-e.pdf RCP_E_74.01_1105.doc
74.02Notice to Estate Registrar of Withdrawal of Will or CodicilNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-2-e.pdf RCP_E_74.02_1105.doc
74.03Request for Notice of Commencement of ProceedingNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-3-e.pdf RCP_E_74.03_1105.doc
74.04Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a Will (Individual Applicant)Sept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-04-0918.doc
74.04.1Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a Will (Individual Applicant) Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillSept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-04-1-0918.doc
74.05Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a Will (Corporate Applicant)Sept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-05-0918.doc
74.05Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a Will (Corporate Applicant)Sept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-05-0918.doc
74.05.1Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a Will (Corporate Applicant) Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillSept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-05-1-0918.doc
74.06Affidavit of Service of Notice (Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee With a Will)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-6-e.pdf RCP_E_74.06_1105.doc
74.07Notice of an Application for a Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a WillFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 rcp-74-7-e_2015.pdf RCP-E-74-07-0215.doc
74.08Affidavit of Execution of Will or CodicilNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-8-e.pdf RCP_E_74.08_1105.doc
74.09Affidavit Attesting to the Handwriting and Signature of a Holograph Will or CodicilNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-9-e.pdf RCP_E_74.09_1105.doc
74.10Affidavit of Condition of Will or CodicilOct. 24, 2017Dec. 22, 2017 rcp_e_74.10.doc
74.11Renunciation of Right to a Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee (or Succeeding Estate Trustee) with a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-11-e.pdf RCP_E_74.11_1105.doc
74.12Consent to Applicant’s Appointment as Estate Trustee with a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-12-e.pdf RCP_E_74.12_1105.doc
74.12.1Consent to Applicant's Appointment as Estate Trustee With a Will Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 rcp-74-12-1-e.pdf RCP-E-74-12-1-0215.doc
74.13Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a WillFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 RCP-E-74-13-0215.pdf RCP-E-74-13-0215.doc
74.13.1Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a Will Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 rcp-74-13-1-e_2015.pdf RCP-E-74-13-1-0215.doc
74.13.2Order for a Certificate of Appointment of (Succeeding) Estate Trustee with a Will Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-74-13-2-e.pdf RCP-E-74-13-2-0412.doc
74.14Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee without a Will (Individual Applicant)Sept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-14-0918.doc
74.15Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee without a Will (Corporate Applicant)Sept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-15-0918.doc
74.16Affidavit of Service of Notice (Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee without a Will)Nov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-16-e.pdf RCP_E_74.16_1105.doc
74.17Notice of an Application for a Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-17-e.pdf RCP_E_74.17_1105.doc
74.18Renunciation of Prior Right to a Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-18-e.pdf RCP_E_74.18_1105.doc
74.19Consent to Applicant’s Appointment as Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-19-e.pdf RCP_E_74.19_1105.doc
74.20Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-20-e.pdf RCP_E_74.20_1105.doc
74.20.1Application for Certificate of Appointment of a Foreign Estate Trustee’s Nominee as Estate Trustee without a WillFeb. 1, 2015July 9, 2015 rcp-74-20-1-e.pdf RCP-E-74-20-1-0215.doc
74.20.2Nomination of Applicant by Foreign Estate TrusteeNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_74.20.2_1105.htm RCP_E_74.20.2_1105.doc
74.20.3Certificate of Appointment of Foreign Estate Trustee’s Nominee as Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 RCP_E_74.20.3_1105.htm RCP_E_74.20.3_1105.doc
74.21Application for Certificate of Appointment as Succeeding Estate Trustee with a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-21-e.pdf RCP_E_74.21_1105.doc
74.21.1Application for Certificate of Appointment as Succeeding Estate Trustee With a Will Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-74-21-1-e.pdf RCP-E-74-21-1-0412.doc
74.22Consent to Applicant’s Appointment as Succeeding Estate Trustee with a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-22-e.pdf RCP_E_74.22_1105.doc
74.22.1Consent to Applicant's Appointment as Succeeding Estate Trustee With a Will Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-74-22-1-e.pdf RCP-E-74-22-1-0412.doc
74.23Certificate of Appointment of Succeeding Estate Trustee with a WillFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 rcp-74-23-e-version_2.pdf RCP-E-74-23-0215.doc
74.23.1Certificate of Appointment of Succeeding Estate Trustee With a Will Limited to the Assets Referred to in the WillFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 rcp-74-23-1-e-version_2.pdf RCP-E-74-23-1-0215.doc
74.24Application for Certificate of Appointment as Succeeding Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-24-e.pdf RCP_E_74.24_1105.doc
74.25Consent to Applicant’s Appointment as Succeeding Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-25-e.pdf RCP_E_74.25_1105.doc
74.26Certificate of Appointment of Succeeding Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-26-e.pdf RCP_E_74.26_1105.doc
74.27Application for Confirmation by Resealing of Appointment of Estate Trustee or Certificate of Ancillary Appointment of Estate Trustee with a WillFeb. 1, 2015July 9, 2015 rcp-74-27-e.pdf RCP-E-74-27-0215.doc
74.28Confirmation by Resealing of Appointment of Estate TrusteeFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 rcp-74-28-e_version_2.pdf RCP-E-74-28-0215.doc
74.29Certificate of Ancillary Appointment of Estate Trustee with a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-29-e.pdf RCP_E_74.29_1105.doc
74.30Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee During LitigationSept. 1, 2018Dec. 21, 2018 rcp-e-74-30-0918.doc
74.31Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee During LitigationNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-31-e.pdf RCP_E_74.31_1105.doc
74.32Bond - Insurance or Guarantee CompanyNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-32-e.pdf RCP_E_74.32_1105.doc
74.33Bond - Personal SuretiesNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-33-e.pdf RCP_E_74.33_1105.doc
74.34Registrar’s Notice to Estate Trustee Named in a Deposited Will of Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee with a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-34-e.pdf RCP_E_74.34_1105.doc
74.35Registrar’s Notice to Estate Trustee Named in a Deposited Will of Application for Certificate of Appointment of Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-35-e.pdf RCP_E_74.35_1105.doc
74.36Order to Accept or Refuse Appointment as Estate Trustee with a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-36-e.pdf RCP_E_74.36_1105.doc
74.37Order to Accept or Refuse Appointment as Estate Trustee without a WillNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-37-e.pdf RCP_E_74.37_1105.doc
74.38Order to Consent or Object to a Proposed Appointment of an Estate Trustee with or without a WillJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-74-38-e.pdf RCP_E_74.38_0707.doc
74.39Order to File a Statement of Assets of the EstateNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-39-e.pdf RCP_E_74.39_1105.doc
74.40Order to Beneficiary WitnessNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-40-e.pdf RCP_E_74.40_1105.doc
74.41Order to Former SpouseNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-41-e.pdf RCP_E_74.41_1105.doc
74.42Order to Pass AccountsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-42-e.pdf RCP_E_74.42_1105.doc
74.43Affidavit Verifying Estate AccountsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-43-e.pdf RCP_E_74.43_1105.doc
74.44Notice of Application to Pass AccountsJan. 1, 2016May 26, 2016 rcp-74-44-0116-e.pdf rcp-e-74-44-0116.doc
74.45Notice of Objection to AccountsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-74-45-e.pdf RCP_E_74.45_0707.doc
74.45.1Request for Further Notice in Passing of AccountsMay 1, 2017July 1, 2017 rcp-e-74-45-1-0517.doc
74.46Notice of No Objection to AccountsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-74-46-e.pdf RCP_E_74.46_0707.doc
74.46.1Notice of Non-Participation in Passing of AccountsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp_74_46_1_e.pdf RCP_E_74.46.1_0707.doc
74.47Affidavit in Support of Unopposed Judgment on Passing of AccountsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-74-47-e.pdf RCP-E-74-47-1105.doc
74.48Notice of Withdrawal of ObjectionJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-74-48-e.pdf RCP_E_74.48_0707.doc
74.49Request for Costs (Person other than Children’s Lawyer or Public Guardian and Trustee)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-74-49-e.pdf RCP_E_74.49_0707.doc
74.49.1Request for Costs (Children’s Lawyer or Public Guardian and Trustee)July 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-74-49-1-e.pdf RCP_E_74.49.1_0707.doc
74.49.2Request for Increased Costs (Estate Trustee)April 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-74-49-2-e.pdf RCP-E-74-49-2-0412.doc
74.49.3Request for Increased Costs (Person other than Estate Trustee)April 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-74-49-3-e.pdf RCP-E-74-49-3-0412.doc
74.49.4Reply to Notice of Objection to AccountsFeb. 1, 2015Jan. 1, 2016 rcp-74-49-4-e.pdf RCP-E-74-49-4-0215.doc
74.50Judgment on Unopposed Passing of AccountsApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-74-50-e.pdf RCP-E-74-50-0412.doc
74.51Judgment on Contested Passing of AccountsApril 11, 2012July 1, 2012 rcp-74-51-e.pdf RCP-E-74-51-0412.doc
75.1Notice of ObjectionJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-1-e.pdf RCP_E_75.01_0707.doc
75.10Statement of Submission of Rights to the CourtJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-10-e.pdf RCP_E_75.10_0707.doc
75.1ARequest for Assignment of MediatorNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-75-1a-e.pdf RCP_E_75.01A_1105.doc
75.1BNotice by MediatorNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-75-1b-e.pdf RCP_E_75.01B_1105.doc
75.1CStatement of IssuesNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-75-1c-e.pdf RCP_E_75.01C_1105.doc
75.1DCertificate of Non-ComplianceNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-75-1d-e.pdf RCP_E_75.01D_1105.doc
75.11Notice of SettlementJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-11-e.pdf RCP_E_75.11_0707.doc
75.12Rejection of SettlementJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-12-e.pdf RCP_E_75.12_0707.doc
75.13Notice of ContestationJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-13-e.pdf RCP_E_75.13_0707.doc
75.14Claim Against EstateNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-75-14-e.pdf RCP_E_75.14_1105.doc
75.2Notice that Objection has been FiledJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-2-e.pdf RCP_E_75.02_0707.doc
75.3Notice to ObjectorJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-3-e.pdf RCP_E_75.03_0707.doc
75.4Notice of AppearanceJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-4-e.pdf RCP_E_75.04_0707.doc
75.5Notice of Application for DirectionsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-5-e.pdf RCP_E_75.05_0707.doc
75.6Notice of Motion for DirectionsJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-6-e.pdf RCP_E_75.06_0707.doc
75.7Statement of Claim Pursuant to Order Giving DirectionsNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-75-7-e.pdf RCP_E_75.07_1105.doc
75.8Order Giving Directions Where Pleadings DirectedJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-8-e.pdf RCP_E_75.08_0707.doc
75.9Order Giving Directions Where Trial of Issues DirectedJuly 1, 2007July 1, 2008 rcp-75-9-e.pdf RCP_E_75.09_0707.doc
76ANotice Whether Action Under Rule 76Nov. 1, 2008Jan. 1, 2010 rcp-76a-e.pdf RCP-E-76A-1108.doc
76BSimplified Procedure Motion FormNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-76b-e.pdf RCP_E_76B_1105.doc
76CNotice of Readiness for Pre-Trial ConferenceNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-76c-e.pdf RCP_E_76C_1105.doc
76DTrial Management ChecklistNov. 1, 2005July 1, 2006 rcp-76d-e.pdf RCP_E_76D_1105.doc
76DTrial Management ChecklistMay 1, 2019Jan. 1, 2020 rcp-76d-e-0519.pdf rcp-e-76d-0519.doc

Courts of Justice Act

Versions Regulations under this Act Revoked/spent regulations under this Act

Courts of Justice Act

R.S.O. 1990, CHAPTER C.43

Consolidation Period: From May 29, 2019 to the e-Laws currency date.

Last amendment: 2019, c. 7, Sched. 15.

CONTENTS

1.Definitions
1.1References to former names of courts
PART I
COURT OF APPEAL FOR ONTARIO
2.Court of Appeal
3.Composition of court
4.Assignment of judges from Superior Court of Justice
5.Powers and duties of Chief Justice
6.Court of Appeal jurisdiction
7.Composition of court
8.References to Court of Appeal
9.Meeting of judges
PART II
COURT OF ONTARIO
10.Court of Ontario
Superior Court of Justice
11.Superior Court of Justice
12.Composition of Superior Court of Justice
13.Assignment of judges from Court of Appeal
14.Chief Justice, Associate Chief Justice and regional senior judges of Superior Court of Justice; Senior Judge of Family Court
15.Judges assigned to regions
16.Composition of court for hearings
17.Appeals to Superior Court of Justice
Divisional Court
18.Divisional Court
19.Divisional Court jurisdiction
20.Place for hearing
21.Composition of court for hearings
Family Court
21.1Family Court
21.2Composition of Family Court
21.3Transitional measure
21.7Composition of court for hearings
21.8Proceedings in Family Court
21.9Other jurisdiction
21.9.1Certain appeals
21.10Orders of predecessor court
21.11Place where proceeding commenced
21.12Enforcement of orders
21.13Community liaison committee
21.14Community resources committee
21.15Dispute resolution service
Small Claims Court
22.Small Claims Court
23.Jurisdiction
24.Composition of court for hearings
25.Summary hearings
26.Representation
27.Evidence
28.Instalment orders
29.Limit on costs
30.Contempt hearing for failure to attend examination
31.Appeals
32.Deputy judges
33.Deputy Judges Council
33.1Complaint
Ontario Court of Justice
34.Ontario Court of Justice
35.Composition of Ontario Court of Justice
36.Chief Justice, Associate Chief Justice and regional senior judges of Ontario Court of Justice
37.Judges assigned to regions
38.Jurisdiction of Ontario Court of Justice
39.Judge to preside
40.Appeals
41.Penalty for disturbance outside courtroom
Provincial Judges
42.Appointment of provincial judges
43.Judicial Appointments Advisory Committee
44.Full and part-time service
45.Application for order that needs be accommodated
46.Outside activities
47.Retirement
48.Resignation and election
Ontario Judicial Council
49.Judicial Council
50.Complaint against Chief Justice, Associate Chief Justice or regional senior judge of the Ontario Court of Justice
51.Other duties of Judicial Council
51.1Rules
51.2Use of official languages of courts
51.3Complaint re provincial judge
51.4Role of subcommittee
51.5Mediation
51.6Adjudication by Council
51.7Compensation
51.8Removal for cause
51.9Standards of conduct
51.10Continuing education
51.11Performance evaluation
51.12Consultation
Provincial Judges’ Remuneration
51.13Remuneration and framework agreement
Miscellaneous
52.Meetings of judges
53.Regulations
PART IV
RULES OF COURT
65.Civil Rules Committee
66.Civil Rules
67.Family Rules Committee
68.Family rules
69.Criminal Rules Committee
70.Criminal rules
70.1Provincial offences rules
PART V
ADMINISTRATION OF THE COURTS
71.Goals
72.Role of Attorney General
73.Court officers and staff
74.Destruction of documents
75.Powers re sittings and assignment of judicial duties
76.Direction of court staff
77.Memoranda of understanding between Attorney General and Chief Justices
78.Ontario Courts Advisory Council
79.Ontario Courts Management Advisory Committee
79.1Regions
79.2Regional Courts Management Advisory Committee
79.3Annual report on administration of courts
PART VI
JUDGES AND OFFICERS
80.Oath of office
81.Persona designata abolished
82.Liability of judges and other officers
84.Extra-judicial services
85.Judges’ gowns
86.How certain judges to be addressed
86.1Case management masters
86.2Complaint re case management master
87.Masters
87.1Small Claims Court judges
87.2Small Claims Court Administrative Judge
87.3Complaint
88.Regulations
89.Children’s Lawyer
90.Assessment officers
91.Officers of court
92.Administration of oaths
93.Money held by officer of court
94.Disposition of court fees
PART VII
COURT PROCEEDINGS
95.Application of Part
Common Law and Equity
96.Rules of law and equity
97.Declaratory orders
98.Relief against penalties
99.Damages in substitution for injunction or specific performance
100.Vesting orders
Interlocutory Orders
101.Injunctions and receivers
102.Injunction in labour dispute
103.Certificate of pending litigation
104.Interim order for recovery of personal property
105.Physical or mental examination
106.Stay of proceedings
107.Consolidation of proceedings in different courts
Procedural Matters
108.Jury trials
109.Notice of constitutional question
110.Proceeding in wrong forum
111.Set off
112.Investigation and report of Children’s Lawyer
113.Agreement preventing third party claim or crossclaim
114.Agreement as to place of hearing
115.Security
116.Periodic payment and review of damages
116.1Periodic payment, medical malpractice actions
117.Assessment of damages
118.Guidance and submissions
119.Power of court on appeal
120.Advance payments
121.Foreign money obligations
122.Actions for accounting
123.Judge’s retirement, etc., inability or failure to give decision
Language
125.Official languages of the courts
126.Bilingual proceedings
Interest and Costs
127.Prejudgment and postjudgment interest rates
128.Prejudgment interest
129.Postjudgment interest
130.Discretion of court
131.Costs
Appeals
132.Judge not to hear appeal from own decision
133.Leave to appeal required
134.Powers on appeal
Public Access
135.Public hearings
136.Prohibition against photography, etc., at court hearing
137.Documents public
Prevention of Proceedings that Limit Freedom of Expression on Matters of Public Interest (Gag Proceedings)
137.1Dismissal of proceeding that limits debate
137.2Procedural matters
137.3Appeal to be heard as soon as practicable
137.4Stay of related tribunal proceeding
137.5Application
Miscellaneous
138.Multiplicity of proceedings
139.Joint liability not affected by judgment or release
140.Vexatious proceedings
141.Civil orders directed to sheriffs
142.Protection for acting under court order
143.Enforcement
144.Orders enforceable by police
145.Consul as official representative
146.Where procedures not provided
147.Seal of court
148.Jurisdiction of Federal Court
PART VII.1
ENFORCEMENT OF CERTAIN TRADE AGREEMENTS
148.1Application
148.2Enforcement of order to pay tariff costs
148.3Regulations
PART VIII
MISCELLANEOUS
149.Family law mediation and information services
150.Renewal of writs of execution issued before January 1, 1985
151.References to counties for judicial purposes
151.1Meaning unchanged
Schedule

Definitions

1 (1) In this Act,

“action” means a civil proceeding that is not an application and includes a proceeding commenced by,

(a) claim,

(b) statement of claim,

(c) notice of action,

(d) counterclaim,

(e) crossclaim,

(f) third or subsequent party claim, or

(g) divorce petition or counterpetition; (“action”)

“application” means a civil proceeding that is commenced by notice of application or by application; (“requête”)

“defendant” means a person against whom an action is commenced; (“défendeur”)

“hearing” includes a trial; (“audience”)

“motion” means a motion in a proceeding or an intended proceeding; (“motion”)

“order” includes a judgment or decree; (“ordonnance”)

“plaintiff” means a person who commences an action; (“demandeur”)

“region” means a region prescribed under section 79.1. (“région”)  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 1; 1993, c. 27, Sched.; 2006, c. 21, Sched. A, s. 1.

Application to other Acts

(2) This section applies to all other Acts affecting or relating to the courts and the administration of justice.  2006, c. 21, Sched. F, s. 106.

Section Amendments with date in force (d/m/y)

References to former names of courts

In English

1.1 (1) A reference in the English version of an Act, rule or regulation to a court or official by the former name of that court or the former title of that official set out in Column 1 of the following table or by a shortened version of that name or title is deemed, unless a contrary intention appears, to be a reference to the new name of that court or the new title of that official set out in Column 2.

Table

Column 1
Former names and titles
Column 2
New names and titles
Ontario Court of JusticeCourt of Ontario
Ontario Court (General Division)Superior Court of Justice
Ontario Court (Provincial Division)Ontario Court of Justice
Chief Justice of the Ontario Court of JusticeChief Justice of the Superior Court of Justice
Associate Chief Justice of the Ontario Court of JusticeAssociate Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Justice
Associate Chief Justice (Family Court) of the Ontario Court of JusticeAssociate Chief Justice (Family Court) of the Superior Court of Justice
Chief Judge of the Ontario Court (Provincial Division)Chief Justice of the Ontario Court of Justice
Associate Chief Judge of the Ontario Court (Provincial Division)Associate Chief Justice of the Ontario Court of Justice
Associate Chief Judge-Co-ordinator of Justices of the PeaceAssociate Chief Justice Co-ordinator of Justices of the Peace
Accountant of the Ontario CourtAccountant of the Superior Court of Justice

2017, c. 20, Sched. 11, s. 7.

In French

(2) A reference in the French version of an Act, rule or regulation to a court or official by the former name of that court or the former title of that official set out in Column 1 of the following table or by a shortened version of that name or title is deemed, unless a contrary intention appears, to be a reference to the new name of that court or the new title of that official set out in Column 2.

Table

Column 1
Former names and titles
Column 2
New names and titles
Cour de justice de l’OntarioCour de l’Ontario
Cour de l’Ontario (Division générale)Cour supérieure de justice
Cour de l’Ontario (Division provinciale)Cour de justice de l’Ontario
Juge en chef de la Cour de justice de l’OntarioJuge en chef de la Cour supérieure de justice
Juge en chef adjoint de la Cour de justice de l’OntarioJuge en chef adjoint de la Cour supérieure de justice
Juge en chef adjoint (Cour de la famille) de la Cour de justice de l’OntarioJuge en chef adjoint (Cour de la famille) de la Cour supérieure de justice
Juge en chef de la Cour de l’Ontario (Division provinciale)Juge en chef de la Cour de justice de l’Ontario
Juge en chef adjoint de la Cour de l’Ontario (Division provinciale)Juge en chef adjoint de la Cour de justice de l’Ontario
Juge en chef adjoint-coordonnateur des juges de paixJuge en chef adjoint et coordonnateur des juges de paix
Comptable de la Cour de l’OntarioComptable de la Cour supérieure de justice

2017, c. 20, Sched. 11, s. 7.

Newer references to Ontario Court of Justice

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply to references to the Ontario Court of Justice enacted or made on or after April 19, 1999. 2017, c. 20, Sched. 11, s. 7.

Section Amendments with date in force (d/m/y)

PART I
COURT OF APPEAL FOR ONTARIO

Court of Appeal

2 (1) The Court of Appeal for Ontario is continued as a superior court of record under the name Court of Appeal for Ontario in English and Cour d’appel de l’Ontario in French.

Same

(2) The Court of Appeal has the jurisdiction conferred on it by this or any other Act, and in the exercise of its jurisdiction has all the powers historically exercised by the Court of Appeal for Ontario.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 2.

Composition of court

3 (1) The Court of Appeal shall consist of,

(a) the Chief Justice of Ontario, who shall be president of the court;

(b) the Associate Chief Justice of Ontario; and

(c) fourteen other judges.

Same

(2) The Lieutenant Governor in Council may by regulation increase the number of judges of the Court of Appeal who are in addition to the Chief Justice and the Associate Chief Justice.

Additional judges

(3) There shall be such additional offices of judge of the Court of Appeal as are from time to time required, to be held by Chief Justices of Ontario and Associate Chief Justices of Ontario who have elected under the Judges Act (Canada) to perform only the duties of a judge of the Court of Appeal.

Supernumerary judges

(4) There shall be such additional offices of supernumerary judge of the Court of Appeal as are from time to time required, to be held by judges of the Court of Appeal who have elected under the Judges Act (Canada) to hold office only as a supernumerary judge of the court.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 3.

Assignment of judges from Superior Court of Justice

4 (1) The Chief Justice of Ontario, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Justice, may assign a judge of the Superior Court of Justice to perform the work of a judge of the Court of Appeal.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 4 (1); 1996, c. 25, s. 9 (14, 17).

Superior Court of Justice judges

(2) A judge of the Superior Court of Justice is, by virtue of his or her office, a judge of the Court of Appeal and has all the jurisdiction, power and authority of a judge of the Court of Appeal.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 4 (2); 1996, c. 25, s. 9 (17).

Section Amendments with date in force (d/m/y)

Powers and duties of Chief Justice

5 (1) The Chief Justice of Ontario has general supervision and direction over the sittings of the Court of Appeal and the assignment of the judicial duties of the court.

Absence of Chief Justice

(2) If the Chief Justice of Ontario is absent from Ontario or is for any reason unable to act, his or her powers and duties shall be exercised and performed by the Associate Chief Justice of Ontario.

Absence of Associate Chief Justice

(3) If the Chief Justice of Ontario and the Associate Chief Justice of Ontario are both absent from Ontario or for any reason unable to act, the powers and duties of the Chief Justice shall be exercised and performed by a judge of the Court of Appeal designated by the Chief Justice or Associate Chief Justice.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 5.

Court of Appeal jurisdiction

6 (1) An appeal lies to the Court of Appeal from,

(a) an order of the Divisional Court, on a question that is not a question of fact alone, with leave of the Court of Appeal as provided in the rules of court;

(b) a final order of a judge of the Superior Court of Justice, except an order referred to in clause 19 (1) (a) or an order from which an appeal lies to the Divisional Court under another Act;

(c) a certificate of assessment of costs issued in a proceeding in the Court of Appeal, on an issue in respect of which an objection was served under the rules of court;

(d) an order made under section 137.1. R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 6 (1); 1994, c. 12, s. 1; 1996, c. 25, s. 9 (17); 2015, c. 23, s. 1.

Combining of appeals from other courts

(2) The Court of Appeal has jurisdiction to hear and determine an appeal that lies to the Divisional Court or the Superior Court of Justice if an appeal in the same proceeding lies to and is taken to the Court of Appeal.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 6 (2); 1996, c. 25, s. 9 (17).

Same

(3) The Court of Appeal may, on motion, transfer an appeal that has already been commenced in the Divisional Court or the Superior Court of Justice to the Court of Appeal for the purpose of subsection (2).  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 6 (3); 1996, c. 25, s. 9 (17).

Section Amendments with date in force (d/m/y)

Composition of court

Hearings

7 (1) A proceeding in the Court of Appeal shall be heard and determined by not fewer than three judges sitting together, and always by an uneven number of judges.

Motions

(2) A motion in the Court of Appeal and an appeal under clause 6 (1) (c) shall be heard and determined by one judge.

Same

(3) Subsection (2) does not apply to a motion for leave to appeal, a motion to quash an appeal or any other motion that is specified by the rules of court.

Same

(4) A judge assigned to hear and determine a motion may adjourn the motion to a panel of the Court of Appeal.

Same

(5) A panel of the Court of Appeal may, on motion, set aside or vary the decision of a judge who hears and determines a motion.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 7.

References to Court of Appeal

8 (1) The Lieutenant Governor in Council may refer any question to the Court of Appeal for hearing and consideration.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 8 (1).

Opinion of court

(2) The court shall certify its opinion to the Lieutenant Governor in Council, accompanied by a statement of the reasons for it, and any judge who differs from the opinion may certify his or her opinion and reasons in the same manner.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 8 (2).

Submissions by Attorney General

(3) On the hearing of the question, the Attorney General of Ontario is entitled to make submissions to the court.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 8 (3).

Same

(4) The Attorney General of Canada shall be notified and is entitled to make submissions to the court if the question relates to the constitutional validity or constitutional applicability of an Act, or of a regulation or by-law made under an Act, of the Parliament of Canada or the Legislature.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 8 (4).

Notice

(5) The court may direct that any person interested, or any one or more persons as representatives of a class of persons interested, be notified of the hearing and be entitled to make submissions to the court.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 8 (5).

Appointment of counsel

(6) If an interest affected is not represented by counsel, the court may request counsel to argue on behalf of the interest and the reasonable expenses of counsel shall be paid by the Minister of Finance.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 8 (6); 2006, c. 21, Sched. A, s. 2.

Appeal

(7) The opinion of the court shall be deemed to be a judgment of the court and an appeal lies from it as from a judgment in an action.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 8 (7).

Section Amendments with date in force (d/m/y)

Meeting of judges

9 (1) The judges of the Court of Appeal shall meet at least once in each year, on a day fixed by the Chief Justice of Ontario, in order to consider this Act, the rules of court and the administration of justice generally.  R.S.O. 1990, c. C.43, s. 9 (1).

(2) Repealed: 2009, c. 33, Sched. 2, s. 20 (1).

Section Amendments with date in force (d/m/y)

Universal-Declaration-of-Human-Rights SYMBOL

The National Human Rights Justice Administration / The Superior Court of Justice & The FBI Law Enforcement Agency is a National Israelite Government Institution.

All Rights Reserved.

ANY CORPORATE INSTITUTION THAT HAS COMMITTED A HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATONS AGAINST ANY IDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE PERSON / ISRAELITE FAMILY OR ISRAELITE BUSINESS, CAN BE FILED IMMEDIATELY WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION / SUPERIOR COURT OF JUSTICE TO FILE A CIVIL LAWSUIT AGAINST THE OFFENDING EMPLOYEE / INSTITUTION BY FILING YOUR HUMAN RIGHTS APPLICATION AT HUMANRIGHTS.COURTOFJUSTICE@GMAIL.COM

The Superior Court  / The National Human Rights Justice Administration & The FBI Law Enforcement Agency are Federalized Institutions of The National Israelite Government Sovereignty. All Rights Reserved.

ANY PERSON WHO HAS BEEN THE VICTIM OF A HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION, FILE YOUR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION APPLICATION / CIVIL LAWSUIT APPLICATION WITH OUR SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION WHICH IS A DIVISION OF THE MOST HIGH SUPREME ISRAELITE COURT OF JUSTICE.

THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION HOLDS EXCLUSIVE POWER & JURISDICTION OVER ALL LEGAL MATTERS, CIVIL LITIGATION CASES, HUMAN RIGHTS ADJUDICATION MATTERS & ALL APPLICATIONS INITIATED IN THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION. ANY DEFENDANT OR CORPORATE ENTITY WHO HAS BEEN SERVED CIVIL JUDGEMENT RESULTING FROM OUR SUPERIOR COURT'S JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS IS RESTRICTED / LIMITED TO FILING APPEAL / REVIEW OF JUDGEMENTS EXCLUSIVELY THROUGH OUR APPEAL COURT / SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE & MAY NOT INITIATE ANY EXTERNAL COURT PROCEEDING BASED ON THE SAME FACTS OR MATTERS INITIALLY PRESIDED OVER / ADJUDICATED BY OUR SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION. ALL OF OUR LEGAL MATTERS ARE STRICTLY RESERVED FOR ANY APPLICATION FOR APPEAL TO BE ADDRESSED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE LAWFUL ADJUDICATION POWERS OF THE MOST HIGH SUPREME ISRAELITE COURT OF JUSTICE / APPEALS COURT.

In any case where you were issued a Notice of Offense / Human Rights Law Violation or Corporate By-Law Violation, you must appear at the courthouse address on the date & time detailed on the court summons / fine notice issued to you by The National Civilian Human Rights Law Enforcement Agent to resolve the matter / have the fine reduced or stand trial for the offense / offenses. In any case that you do not appear, either you will be found guilty & liable for the fine / penalty in the amount charged up to $5000.00 maximum. If you were charged with any related criminal offense, a warrant will be issued for your arrest & you will face jail & prosecution by your local police & criminal court divisions.

For early resolution contact: CivilianGovernment.CourtJustice@Gmail.com

THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS & FREEDOMS:

1.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO PEACE, SAFETY, SECURITY & FINANCIAL SUPPORT (WHETHER FROM ISRAELITE CURRENCY / CANADIAN CURRENCY OR NEW WORLD CURRENCY AND SLAVERY & OPPRESSION REPARATIONS CURRENCY / RACIAL DISCRIMINATION RETRIBUTION PAYMENTS (TOTALING A MINIMUM REQUIREMENT LOW INCOME RESTORATION RIGHT OF $24,900 ANNUALLY FOR TEN YEARS CONSECUTIVELY ADMINISTERED DIRECTLY TO THE SOVEREIGN AUTHORITY OF THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS NEGRO ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY) FOR US TO ADMINISTER TO OUR INDIGENOUS NEGRO ISRAELITE POPULATION THROUGH OUR SELF GOVERNED BANKING SYSTEM WITHOUT EXTERNAL INTERFERENCE AS INTERNATIONAL LAW REQUIRES & EACH ISRAELITE CITIZEN / GROUP HAS THE RIGHT TO SEEK REFUGE / HUMAN RIGHTS RESTORATION & PROTECTION FROM BEING LIMITED TO A STATUS OF POVERTY & RACIAL DISCRIMINATION ANYWHERE THEY RESIDE WITHIN THE BORDERS OF CANADA & ANYWHERE WITHIN THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY'S JURISDICTION. ALL ISRAELITE CITIZENS ALSO HAVE THE RIGHT TO REJECT & BE LAWFULLY PROTECTED FROM HARASSMENT, OFFENSIVE / THREATENING BEHAVIOR / INTIMIDATION / UNWANTED CONTACT OR UNWANTED VISITS FROM ANY PERSONS, GROUPS, ORGANIZATIONS OR SOCIETIES SUCH AS THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY OR ANY OTHER INTRUSIVE ORGANIZATIONS. SUCH ORGANIZATIONS ARE TO CONTACT THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS NEGRO ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY IN ANY CASE WHERE THEY HAVE ANY CONCERNS, AND DO NOT INTRUDE ON OUR PEOPLE'S PROPERTY OR INTERFERE WITH OUR PEOPLE'S LIVES IN ANY WAY, SHAPE OR FORM. WE RESERVE THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS AND AUTHORITY TO GOVERN AND ADMINISTER JUSTICE TO OUR OWN PEOPLE AND PROTECT OUR CITIZENS FROM BEING EXPLOITED OR INTERFERED WITH BY ANY NON ISRAELITE SOCIETY REGARDLESS OF WHETHER IT'S A SOCIAL / FAMILY MATTER, HUMAN RIGHTS OR LEGAL DISPUTE, EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO CLAIM ALL 30 OF THESE HUMAN RIGHTS & FREEDOMS ANYWHERE IN CANADA & BE PROVIDED WITH PROTECTION & LEGAL REPRESENTATION FREE OF CHARGE. ALSO, EVERY CITIZENS ADDRESS / OCCUPIED RESIDENCE / SCHOOL / PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT / VEHICLE OR ANY OTHER PLACE IN CANADA THAT THEY ARE PRESENT IN AT ANY GIVEN TIME, IS CONSIDERED AS TERRITORY WITHIN THE HUMAN RIGHTS / JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION ENFORCEMENT JURISDICTION OF THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY.
2.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF CHOICE TO PURSUE THEIR LAWFUL FREE WILL; TO EXPLORE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES EQUALLY WITHOUT INTERFERENCE / DISCRIMINATION FROM OTHERS / LOCAL BANKING INSTITUTIONS & TO BE GRANTED NATIONAL ISRAELITE CURRENCY / CANADIAN CURRENCY/ WORLD CURRENCY / GOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE / SLAVERY REPARATIONS AND RACIAL OPPRESSION RETRIBUTIONS THROUGH OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT, THEREFORE, THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT BANKING ESTABLISHMENT HAS THE RIGHT TO BE MADE FINANCIALLY CAPABLE TO PROVIDE EACH INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP OF INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZENS WITH THE FINANCES REQUIRED FOR THEM TO PURSUE & ACCOMPLISH APPROVED BUSINESS GOALS & CORPORATE OPPORTUNITIES AS A FUNDAMENTAL SOCIAL JUSTICE / ECONOMIC EQUALITY RESTORATION RIGHT. THEREFORE, IT IS A FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE HUMAN RIGHT FOR THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, THE HONORABLE PARLIAMENT OF CANADA, THE HONORABLE PRIME MINISTER JUSTIN TRUDEAU & THE HONORABLE MONARCHY OF CANADA (UNIFIED) TO ENSURE THAT THE NATIONAL NEGRO / ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT IS FINANCIALLY ENABLED / MADE CAPABLE OF PROVIDING THE NECESSARY SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE / SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS (WITHIN MINIMUM 5KM SQ. SEGREGATED GTA TERRITORY) WHICH THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT CAN UTILIZE TO PROVIDE SUBSTANTIALLY APPROPRIATE COMMUNITY RESOURCES (CONTAINING 25 HIGH-RISE APARTMENT BUILDINGS, GOVERNMENT / COURT BUILDINGS & A COMMERCIAL CORPORATE DISTRICT COMMUNITY) TO OUR MILLION+ INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE POPULATION, AND TO ENSURE THAT OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY IS GRANTED FINANCIAL STABILITY EQUALLY OR AT LEAST "SUBSTANTIALLY SIMILAR" TO THE AMOUNTS OF FINANCES BEING ADMINISTERED TO OTHER GOVERNMENTS OF EQUALLY POPULATED CIVILIZED NATIONS - EQUALLY, WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION & THE DEPRIVATION OF FINANCES WE HAVE SUFFERED THROUGH UNJUSTIFIED, SINCE SLAVERY TO THIS VERY DAY (450 YRS)...
2B. THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT HAS THE UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS TO BE FUNDED / FINANCED AS A GOVERNMENT INSTITUTION INDEPENDENTLY GOVERNING A POPULATION / ETHNIC NATION OF A MILLION PEOPLE (WHO HAVE BEEN IMPOVERISHED BY MAJORITY IN CANADA ALREADY) WHO REMAIN IN DESPERATE NEED OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND EQUALITY RESTORATIONS WITH SOCIAL JUSTICE & ECONOMIC EQUALITY AS A PRINCIPLE RESTORATION RIGHT, WE ARE DECLARING & REQUIRING TO BE RESTORED RESPECTIVELY IN THE NAME OF JUSTICE, BY THE HONORABLE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS & THE HONORABLE PARLIAMENT OF CANADA, THE HONORABLE PRIME MINISTER JUSTIN TRUDEAU & THE HONORABLE MONARCHY OF CANADA IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS & FREEDOMS, WITH ALL DUE RESPECT FOR THE HUMAN RIGHTS, LAW & JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION IN CANADA & THE UNITED NATIONS COLLECTIVELY.
3.        EVERY INDIGENOUS/ NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN THAT IS ACCUSED OF AN UNLAWFUL OFFENSE WITHIN OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY; HAS THE RIGHT TO BE TRIED, ADJUDICATED, JUDGED, SENTENCED & ADMINISTERED JUSTICE THROUGH OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY OF THE MOST HIGH SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS, STATUTES & COMMANDMENTS WITHIN THE 1611 KING JAMES VERSION BIBLE / APOCHRYPHA IN COMBINATION WITH THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF RIGHTS & FREEDOMS, THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS & FREEDOMS & THE CRIMINAL CODE OF CANADA. IN ALL LEGAL MATTERS, THE OFFENDER SHALL BE SUBJECTED TO THE LAWS & SENTENCING PRINCIPLES ESTABLISHED BY THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY in Unified Organization with "THE 1ST NATIONAL NEGRO ISRAELITE BLACK COMMUNITY HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COUNCIL..." & "THE CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF BLACK LAWYERS" (WHO WILL UTILIZE CANADA'S FEDERAL / PROVINCIAL / CIVIL LAW & JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION PROFESSIONALISM TO ADJUDICATE MATTERS IN EQUAL JUDGEMENT AUTHORITY WITH THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT'S CHIEF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION OFFICIALS / PRIESTS / DEACONS/ MINISTERS & JUDGES WHO WILL ADJUDICATE HUMAN RIGHTS / CIVIL / LEGAL MATTERS BASED ON RIGHTEOUS JOINT ASSESSMENTS OF CASE LAW PROCEEDINGS / SIMILAR PREVIOUSLY ADJUDICATED LITIGATION MATTERS & MORALLY ASSESSED HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTIFICATIONS COMBINED & JOINTLY DECIDED UPON WITH RIGHTEOUS JUDGEMENTS OF LAWFUL AUTHORITY & CANADIAN CASE LAW REFERENCES AS A PRINCIPLE FOUNDATION TO BASE OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT COURT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION UPON TO ENSURE THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IS FULFILLED WITH THE UTMOST RESPECT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT, JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION & THE LAWS, STATUTES & COMMANDMENTS OF THE MOST HIGH ALMIGHTY HEAVENLY FATHER GOD OF ALL CREATION; YAHAYAH, ABOVE ALL ELSE.
4.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO FREELY ASSOCIATE, FORM ASSEMBLY, CONVERSE WITH & GUIDE OTHERS FREELY, PROTECT EACH OTHER & THE COMMUNITY, INTRODUCE NEW INFORMATION TO THE MASSES, PROVIDE ASSISTANCE / RESOURCES TO ISRAELITE COMMUNITY RESOURCE LOCATIONS, GROW FOOD, PREVENT VIOLENCE, BE FREE FROM HARASSMENT, DISCRIMINATION, PERSECUTION, UNLAWFUL DETENTION & ILLEGAL SEARCH & SEIZURE,.. TO BE SAFE FROM THREATS AND HARM OF PERSON, FAMILY & ASSOCIATES, TO BE FREE FROM RESTRICTIONS OF MOVEMENT & TRAVEL WITHIN CANADA, FREE TO SEEK JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION FROM THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT'S ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE FREE OF CHARGE, FREE TO WORK A JOB & EMPLOY OTHERS, FREE FROM POVERTY, FREE FROM WRONGFUL ACCUSATION, FREE FROM FALSE INCRIMINATION & CRIMINALIZATION. FREE FROM LAW ENFORCEMENT PROFILING, FREE TO ATTEND & BECOME MEMBERS OF UNLIMITED SOCIAL / EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS, MEMBERS OF UNLIMITED ISRAELITE CULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS / CORPORATE ENTITIES, RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES & PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS WITHIN THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY & WITHIN CANADA, IRREGARDLESS OF THEIR FINANCIAL ASSETS / CREDIT SCORES.
5.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE TO ESTABLISH CORPORATIONS, ORGANIZATIONS & ESTABLISHMENTS OF PRODUCTIVE COMMUNITY BUILDING, ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENTS & TO BE GRANTED ISRAELITE CURRENCY FUNDING TO HELP CITIZENS ACCOMPLISH THEIR ECONOMIC / COMMUNITY ADVANCEMENT GOALS IN PARTNERSHIP FOUNDATIONS UNDER THE SECURITY & FINANCING OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY.
6.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN ACCUSED OF A CRIMINAL OFFENSE WITHIN OUR ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY, HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE FROM DETENTION BEYOND 12 HOURS WITHOUT A JUDGEMENT OF GUILT FOR A SERIOUS CRIME, BUT MAY BE SUBJECTED TO RELEASE CONDITIONS RESTRICTING THE ACTIVITIES OF AN ACCUSED PERSON UNTIL THE APPOINTED DATE OF TRIAL, JUDGEMENT & SENTENCING OF AN ACCUSED PERSON WHEN CHARGED WITH A SERIOUS OR VIOLENT OFFENSE.
7.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN WHO IS CONVICTED OF A CRIME & IS ORDERED TO SERVE A SENTENCE OF INCARCERATION ANYWHERE IN CANADA, HAS THE RIGHT TO SERVE OUT THE SENTENCE OF HIS/HER INCARCERATION WITHIN THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS / CORRECTIONAL SYSTEM OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION & RETAINS THEIR RIGHT TO LAWFULLY ACCESS (LIMITED) ONLINE OPPORTUNITIES, EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT & OTHER INTERESTS. INMATES ALSO RETAIN THEIR RIGHT TO FREE ACCESS TO TELECOMMUNICATION RESOURCES TO CONTACT OUTSIDE FAMILY CONTACTS, FRIENDS & ASSOCIATES, AND INMATES ALSO RETAIN THE RIGHT TO HAVE (LIMITED) LAWFUL IN CONTACT OPPOSITE SEX RELATIONSHIP / SEX PARTNER INTERACTIONS WITH CONSENTING OPPOSITE SEX PERSONS WHEN IN CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES.
8.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE FROM THE HATRED, OFFENSIVE BEHAVIOR, DISRESPECT OR ANY AUTHORITY CLAIMED BY OUTSIDE CIVILIANS OR OUTSIDE FORCES WHILE WITHIN THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY OR ANYWHERE ELSE THEY ARE LOCATED WITHIN THE BORDERS OF CANADA,... BUT EVERY CITIZEN / VISITOR MUST MAINTAIN PEACEFUL & LAWFUL BEHAVIOR TO AVOID INSTIGATING CONFLICT, THE INITIAL OFFENSIVE PARTY WILL BE HELD PARTIALLY ACCOUNTABLE FOR DISTURBANCES & CONFLICTS.
9.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE TO PROCLAIM SELF DETERMINATION & THESE FUNDAMENTAL ETHNIC NATIONALISM RIGHTS & STATUTES UNDER THE SECURITY & JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT.
10.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE TO BUILD FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS WITH CONSENTING ADULT OPPOSITE SEX PARTNERS IN AGREEMENT TO ENGAGE INTO RELATIONSHIPS AS FAMILY PARTNERS IN ACCORDANCE WITH KJV 1611 BIBLICAL PRINCIPALITIES & RETAIN THEIR RIGHT TO HAVE THEIR HOME OR NEIGHBORHOOD SECURED & NOT ACCESSIBLE BY OUTSIDE, UNIDENTIFIED, UNAPPROVED PERSONS & UNWANTED SOCIAL WORKERS OR ORGANIZATION REPRESENTATIVES LIKE THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY WHILE RESIDING IN ANY COMMUNITY WITHIN THE BORDERS OF CANADA OR WITHIN THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY (AS THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY HAS BEEN REPEATEDLY ACCUSED / GUILTY OF BEING UNLAWFUL CHILD KIDNAPPERS & HAVE BEEN ISSUED A COURT ORDER / RESTRAINING ORDER TO STAY AWAY FROM OUR INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CHILDREN REGARDLESS OF THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY'S DECEPTIVE / CONNIVING PROCEDURES & MISINFORMATION.
10B.       IF THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY OR ANY OTHER NON ISRAELITE CHILD / FAMILY PROTECTION SERVICE ORGANIZATION HAS AN ISSUE CONCERNING ANY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CHILD OR FAMILY, THEY ARE TO CONTACT THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT EXCLUSIVELY & STAY AWAY FROM OUR INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CHILDREN & REFRAIN FROM OBTAINING CONTACT WITH OUR CITIZEN'S CHILDREN DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY OR FACE PROSECUTION BY THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT LAW ENFORCEMENT / LOCAL POLICE & WHICHEVER JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION COURT AUTHORIZED TO PROSECUTE THE MATTER IN YOUR JURISDICTION IF FURTHER PROSECUTION IS REQUIRED FOR KIDNAPPING OFFENSES DETERMINED BY THE NATIONAL NEGRO / ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY.)
11.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO HOME SCHOOL THEIR CHILDREN, AND EVERY ISRAELITE CITIZEN / PARENT / ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT HUMAN RIGHTS LAW ENFORCEMENT ORGANIZATION REPRESENTATIVE HAS THE FULL AUTHORITY & SOVEREIGN RIGHT TO PROTECT THEIR CHILDREN / OUR CHILDREN FROM ANY HEALTH CANADA IMMUNIZATION / VACCINE MANDATES & REFUSE VACCINE / IMMUNIZATION FOR OUR CHILDREN ALTOGETHER, TO PROTECT / REMOVE OUR CHILDREN FROM THE CARE OF TEACHERS, PUBLIC / CATHOLIC SCHOOL / SOCIAL WORKERS / CHILD PROTECTION WORKERS WHO ATTEMPT TO CLAIM FALSE AUTHORITY OVER OUR CHILDREN OR VIOLATE ANY OF OUR OR OUR CHILDREN'S HUMAN RIGHTS, AND ALL ISRAELITE CITIZEN'S / CHILDREN HAVE THE RIGHT TO REFUSE ANY / ALL MEDICAL / VACCINATION PROCEDURES & THE ISRAELITE PARENTS / ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT RESERVE THE FULL RIGHT & AUTHORITY TO DECIDE OUR CHILD / CHILDREN'S SOURCE OF EDUCATION WHICH WILL BE PROVIDED AS THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE KNOWLEDGEABLE EDUCATION STANDARD WITHOUT ANY EXTERNAL GOVERNMENT OR OUTSIDE ORGANIZATION INTERFERENCE OR CONCERN & OUR ISRAELITE BIBLICAL PRINCIPALITIES / PROGRAMMING WILL BE PROVIDED TO ALL ISRAELITE PARENTS BY THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT, AND WILL BE THE MANDATORY STANDARD FAMILY COMMUNITY FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAM.
11B.      NOTE: NO CHILDREN'S ORGANIZATIONS OUTSIDE OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY'S CHILD & FAMILY PROTECTION SERVICES CANADA IS EVER ALLOWED TO RELOCATE, ACCESS, KIDNAP OR EVER USE REASONABLE EXCUSE TO GAIN ACCESS TO ANY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CHILD WHILE THAT CHILD IS IN CARE OF ANY SCHOOL / EDUCATION INSTITUTION / DAYCARE / VISIT / OR OTHER PLACE IN CANADA WHERE CARE WAS GRANTED BY THE CUSTODIAL ISRAELITE PARENT,... IF THIS HUMAN RIGHT / FREEDOM IS VIOLATED, THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT RESERVES / RETAINS FULL AUTHORITY TO PROTECT & ENFORCE ALL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES TO PROTECT, SAVE & RETRIEVE THAT ISRAELITE CHILD FROM CHILD KIDNAPPING ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY OR ANY OTHER GROUPS OR ENTITIES AS AN EMERGENCY NATIONAL SECURITY RESPONSE, AND LAW, ORDER & JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION WILL BE HANDLED INTERNALLY BY THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION... ALL VIOLATORS WILL BE PROSECUTED. THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT / AUTHORITY TO BE ASSISTED BY LOCAL POLICE / LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVES / HUMAN RIGHTS / LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS INITIATE A CALL FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE, REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES.
12.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE TO BE UNITED AS PROPHETIC ISRAELITE BIBLE DESCENDANTS & INVOLVING OURSELVES WITH ISRAELITE CULTURAL TRADITIONS & ISRAELITE BIBLICAL HOLY DAYS AS PRESCRIBED BY OUR PROPHETIC ANCESTORS IN THE 1611 KJV BIBLE.
13.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO PRIORITIZE FOLLOWING ALL BIBLICAL LAWS, STATUTES & COMMANDMENTS WHILE ALSO REINFORCING THE SAME PRIORITIZATION OF BIBLICAL PRINCIPALITIES UPON YOUNGER FAMILY MEMBERS & YOUNGER RELATIVES AS PROPHESIED IN PROPHETIC ISRAELITE SCRIPTURE.
14.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BECOME A PART OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE.
15.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO OWN PROPERTY WITHOUT TIME RESTRICTIONS, TIME LIMITATIONS OR GOVERNMENT REPOSSESSION WITHOUT; RIGHTEOUS JUDGEMENT WARRANTING PROPERTY OWED, UNRESOLVABLE BREACH OF LEASE/OWNERSHIP CONTRACT OR UNRESOLVABLE DISPUTE WITH GOVERNMENT CONCERNING BREACH OF SECURITY OR LAW & ORDER STATUTES OF THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS NEGRO ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT WHILE WITHIN OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE SOCIETY.
16.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO LAW & ORDER, PROTECTION, JUSTICE & JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION, HUMAN RIGHTS, FREEDOMS, SOCIAL JUSTICE & SOCIAL JUSTICE RESOLUTION THROUGH THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION.
17.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE PERSON HAS THE RIGHT TO OBTAIN THEIR NATIONAL ISRAELITE CITIZENSHIP DOCUMENTS & PASSPORT FROM THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT EMBASSY.
18.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO OBTAIN ADVANCEMENT TRADE LICENSING & PRIVILEGED CAREER UPGRADING / LICENSING ADMINISTRATION SUCH AS DRIVERS LICENSE, HEALTH ADMINISTRATION LICENSE, EDUCATION ADMINISTRATOR LICENSE, NATIONAL SECURITY / HUMAN RIGHTS REINFORCEMENT AGENT LICENSE, CHILD CARE PROVIDER LICENSE ETC, AND TO BE ADMINISTERED THESE LICENSING CERTIFICATIONS / DOCUMENTS THROUGH THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT EXCLUSIVELY WITHOUT INTERFERENCE FROM ANY EXTERNAL GOVERNMENTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS / ETHNIC NATIONALISM STATUTES LAWFULLY DECLARED WITHOUT PREJUDICE.
19.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT NOT BE TAKEN AWAY FROM OUR SOCIETY'S TERRITORIES BY OUTSIDE FORCES. (THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT WILL HANDLE ALL INTERNAL LAW ENFORCEMENT, ARREST WARRANTS & INTERNAL INVESTIGATIONS INDEPENDENTLY WHICH ELIMINATES ANY POSSIBILITY OF RACIAL TARGETING OR INTRUSION BY OUTSIDE LAW ENFORCEMENT WHICH WE CO-OPERATE WITH UNCONDITIONALLY REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES.) IN ANY MATTER OF LAW & ORDER, THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT LAW ENFORCEMENT WILL HANDLE ALL INTERNAL ISRAELITE SOCIETY LAW ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES INDEPENDENTLY.
20.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT NOT TO BE PURSUED BY OUTSIDE FORCES PASSED THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY BORDERS NOR HAVE THEIR HOME ENTERED NOR HAVE THEIR FAMILY INTERFERED WITH BY ANYONE OUTSIDE OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY JUSTICE & ORDER LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES. (WHICH ELIMINATES ANY UNNECESSARY RACIAL TARGETING / ISRAELITE COMMUNITY ENDANGERMENT.)
21.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT NOT TO BE DEGRADED, UNDERPAID OR DEMORALIZED IN ANY WAY SHAPE OR FORM BY WAY OF EMPLOYMENT, ENSLAVEMENT OR SERVITUDE REQUIREMENTS TO OBTAIN SURVIVING INCOME.

22.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE FROM HOMELESSNESS, HUNGER OR ABUSIVE / OFFENSIVE ENVIRONMENTS / INDIVIDUALS.

23.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE FROM BEING SUBJECTED TO CRIMINAL ACTIVITY & FREE FROM HAVING ANY CRIMINAL / ILLEGAL ACTIVITY INTERFERING WITH COMMUNITY
PEACEFULNESS, SAFETY, SECURITY & OUR CITIZENS SENSE OF SAFETY, MORAL SURROUNDINGS & WELL BEING.

24.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE TO DEFEND ONES SELF, WEAR PROTECTIVE GEAR & CARRY A NON-LETHAL SELF DEFENSE WEAPON / DOG MACE TO PROTECT ONES FAMILY &
ONES ASSOCIATED RELATIVES / PEERS FROM THE DANGERS, THREATS & OBVIOUS VIOLENT OFFENDERS RUNNING RAMPANT IN CANADIAN SOCIETIES NATIONWIDE. (IT WOULD BE TOTALLY IRRATIONAL & UNJUST TO SUGGEST
THAT OUR CITIZENS WALK THE STREETS DEFENSELESS AS SELF DEFENSE IS ONE OF OUR MOST FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS WE REFUSE TO GIVE UP REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES. IN ALL SITUATIONS, PEACE, LAW &
ORDER WILL BE MAINTAINED / ENFORCED WHENEVER POSSIBLE & WHENEVER NECESSARY WITHOUT SUGGESTING ANY USE OR CARRYING OF LETHAL / DEADLY WEAPONS REGARDLESS OF THE POTENTIAL THREAT WE MAY
ENCOUNTER.) DEADLY WEAPONS MAY ONLY BE UTILIZED EXCLUSIVELY BY THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS WITHIN OUR OWN NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOCIETY & ONLY IN LIFE THREATENING
SITUATIONS / THREATS TO OUR NATIONAL SECURITY.

25.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE FREE TO VIDEO RECORD UNLAWFUL ACTS / EVENTS OR PUBLIC PLACES WITHIN CANADA WITHOUT THREAT FROM OTHER CIVILIANS / LOCAL LAW
ENFORCEMENT.
26.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO RESIDE WITHIN THE ISRAELITE
GOVERNMENT SOCIETIES & BE GRANTED EMPLOYMENT INCOME TO ACCOMMODATE THEIR EXPENSES & FAMILY
SUPPORT. IN CASES OF DISABILITY OR MENTAL ILLNESS, CITIZENS WILL BE GRANTED SOCIAL ASSISTANCE INCOME TO
ACCOMMODATE THEIR EXPENSES & FAMILY SUPPORT.
26B. INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE FEMALES ARE NOT EXPECTED TO WORK WITHIN OR ANYWHERE OUTSIDE OF THE COMMUNITY BUT ARE REQUIRED TO PARTICIPATE IN PART-TIME FAMILY COMMITMENTS / COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITIES AS DESCRIBED IN 1611 KJV BIBLE / APOCHRYPHA TO RECEIVE ADDITIONAL INCOME BENEFITS FROM THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT. NOTE; EACH CITIZEN ABOVE THE AGE OF 15, HAS THE RIGHT TO BE IN RECEIPT OF A MINIMUM ANNUAL INCOME OF $24,900/YR REGARDLESS OF THEIR CIRCUMSTANCES & TEENAGERS BETWEEN THE AGES OF 12 TO 15 WHO STILL LIVE UNDER THEIR PARENT / GUARDIANS RESIDENCE SHALL BE GRANTED A PERSONAL ALLOWANCE OF $12,500/YR TO COMPENSATE THEM FOR THEIR PERSONAL NECESSITIES, CLOTHING, FOOD, ADDITIONAL EXPENSES, SOCIAL / COMMUNITY INTERESTS & FOR THEIR PERSONAL WELL BEING ALLOWANCES)
26C.     THE MORAL AGE OF SEXUAL CONSENT FOR A FEMALE IS 16 YRS OF AGE. ANY ADULT MAN / MALE ABOVE 15 YRS OLD CAUGHT SEXUALLY VIOLATING A FEMALE / CHILD UNDER THE AGE OF 16 FOR AN ADULT MAN OR VIOLATING A FEMALE CHILD UNDER THE AGE OF 13 FOR A 13, 14 OR 15 YR OLD MALE, IS UNLAWFUL AND THAT MALE WILL BE CRIMINALLY PROSECUTED & SEGREGATED FROM THE PUBLIC FREEDOM / PRESENCE OF TEENAGERS / CHILDREN REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING THE OFFENSE. IMMORAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN GENERAL (HOMOSEXUALITY) IS PUNISHABLE / PROSECUTABLE BY LAW. BOYS AT THE AGES OF 11 & 12 YRS OLD MAY ALSO FACE PUNISHMENT FOR SEXUAL DEVIANCE / IMMORAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOR COMMITTED AGAINST CHILDREN.
27.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT NOT TO BE SUBJECTED TO THE PAGAN / GENTILE RELIGIONS / TRADITIONS OR RACIAL DISCRIMINATION / HARASSMENT FROM OUTSIDE COMMUNITY INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OR BUSINESS ENTITIES OR AUTHORITIES.
28.        EVERY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN / BIOLOGICAL PARENT (FATHER / MOTHER WHICHEVER APPLIES) HAS THE FULL AUTHORITY & HUMAN RIGHT TO PROTECT THEIR CHILDREN / FAMILY & TO HAVE COMPLETE DOMINION OVER HIS / HER FAMILY, BUSINESS & HOME AND TO DENY ANYBODY FROM ENTRY INTO THEIR HOME REGARDLESS OF WHICHEVER ORGANIZATION / WHATEVER MEMBER OF ANY SOCIAL INSTITUTION (LIKE THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY) OR WHOEVER ELSE, OUR ISRAELITE CITIZENS / PARENTS HAVE THE FULL RIGHT TO DENY ANY CONTACT WHATSOEVER & TO DENY THE ENTRY OF ANY ISRAELITE OR NON ISRAELITE / GOVERNMENT OR NON GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY CLAIMING TO HAVE ANY KIND OF AUTHORITY AT ALL, TO PROTECT / PREVENT UNLAWFUL ACCESS TO FAMILY MEMBERS & TO AVOID ANY RISKS OF FAMILY ENDANGERMENT / FAMILY INTERFERENCE / UNLAWFUL INTRUSION / TO PREVENT HOME INVASION AND TO PREVENT UNKNOWN, UNWANTED PERSONS FROM GAINING ACCESS INTO THE HOME, WHETHER THE UNKNOWN PARTY DEMANDS ACCESS TO FAMILY MEMBERS CLAIMING AUTHORITY OR NOT, OUR ISRAELITE CITIZENS RESERVE THE RIGHT TO DENY ACCESS TO ANYONE OR ANY SO-CALLED AUTHORITY, REGARDLESS OF THE SITUATION.
OUR CITIZENS ARE UNDER THE SOVEREIGN AUTHORITY, FREEDOM & SECURITY OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT, AND THE RIGHT NOT TO HAVE ANY UNINVITED STRANGERS / UNINVITED ENTITIES OR OUTSIDE FORCES INTERFERE WITH OR DEMAND TO ENTER OUR HOME OR THE BUSINESS PROPERTY OF ANY OF OUR ISRAELITE CITIZENS RESIDING THROUGHOUT THE SOCIETIES OF CANADA IS A FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT TO SAFETY & SECURITY OF THE HOME / FAMILY OR PERSON THAT WE WILL NOT GIVE UP OR COMPROMISE REGARDLESS OF CIRCUMSTANCES. OUR CITIZENS RESERVE THE RIGHT TO REFUSE ENTRY & EVEN BARRICADE OUR DOORS TO PREVENT ANYONE FROM ENTERING WHEN IN FEAR OR DOUBTING OUR SAFETY FROM AN OUTSIDE PERSON / GROUP / ORGANIZATION / SOCIETY TRYING TO GAIN CONTACT / ACCESS WHETHER PEACEFULLY OR NOT, WE DON'T HAVE TO OPEN / ANSWER THE DOOR TO NOBODY UNINVITED / NO POTENTIAL THREAT, AND WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO BE CONSIDERED INNOCENT & NOT LIABLE TO FACE ANY LEGAL CONSEQUENCE OR FALSE CLAIM / ACCUSATION OF UNLAWFULNESS EVER BEING CHARGED AGAINST US IN THESE PARTICULAR MATTERS OF FAMILY / SAFETY REASSURANCES WITHIN OUR HOMES, REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES.
29.     (IN CASES WHERE SINGLE MOTHERS EXIST, THE MOTHER / THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT RETAINS / RESERVES FULL SOVEREIGN CUSTODY & AUTHORITY OVER ALL DECISIONS REGARDING THE CHILDREN'S HEALTH, CUSTODY, EDUCATION SOURCES, RESIDENCE & CHOICE OF CAREGIVERS, WE ALSO RESERVE FULL SOVEREIGN AUTHORITY OVER EXTERNAL GOVERNMENTS & SOCIETIES LIKE THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY IN FAMILY COURT MATTERS / COURT ORDERS / COURT JUDGEMENTS & OVER OUR ISRAELITE CHILDREN'S SAFETY STATUS / RESIDENCY DECISIONS. FURTHERMORE, OUR CHILDREN'S OVERALL WELL BEING DECISIONS WILL BE THE EXCLUSIVE, PRIVATE BUSINESS / INTERNAL GOVERNMENT FAMILY MATTERS RESERVED TO BE ADDRESSED EXCLUSIVELY UNDER THE DIRECT AUTHORITY OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT COURT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION WITHOUT ANY INTERFERENCE TOLERATED BY ANY EXTERNAL GOVERNMENT / NON GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS OR NON ISRAELITE SOCIETIES, AS A FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT & NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT FUNDAMENTAL RESERVATION OF AUTHORITY RIGHT OVER THE GOVERNING OF OUR PEOPLE'S FAMILY / SOCIAL / COMMUNITY MATTERS IN ACCORDANCE WITH ETHNIC NATIONALISM & NATIONAL SELF DETERMINATION STATUTES. ...
THAT DECISION IS A FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT THAT IS NON-NEGOTIABLE & NOT TO BE COMPROMISED BY NO CANADIAN / NORTH AMERICAN / WORLD SOCIETY NOR ANY OTHER CHILD ORGANIZATIONS OF STRANGERS REGARDLESS OF WHATEVER THEY "CLAIM OR HEARSAY" REGARDING CHILD PROTECTION & SAFETY. IN ANY CASE WHERE CHILDREN ARE / WERE UNLAWFULLY TAKEN FROM THEIR ISRAELITE PARENTS / GUARDIANS CUSTODY WITHOUT A FINDING OF GUILT FOR AN OFFENSE COMMITTED BY THE PARENT AGAINST THE CHILD (IN WHICH CASE, THE PARENT RETAINS THE RIGHT TO HAVE A BLOOD RELATED FAMILY MEMBER APPROVED BY THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS NEGRO ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY, TAKE OVER FULL CUSTODY OF THE CHILD); IN ANY OTHER CIRCUMSTANCE, LAW & ORDER WILL BE EXECUTED IMMEDIATELY BY THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT HUMAN RIGHTS LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY TO HAVE THE UNLAWFULLY ABDUCTED CHILDREN (TAKEN BY CHILDREN'S AID TYPE SOCIETIES) RETURNED TO THEIR RIGHTFUL PARENT ASAP, WITHOUT DELAY & LEGAL ACTION WILL BE TAKEN IMMEDIATELY BY THE 1ST NATIONAL NEGRO ISRAELITE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COUNCIL TO INITIATE THE LAYING OF CRIMINAL CHARGES & HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS / LAWSUITS AGAINST THE OFFENDING INDIVIDUALS / GROUPS / SOCIETIES & ORGANIZATIONS THAT DISPLACE ANY ISRAELITE CHILD FROM THEIR HOMES OR SCHOOLS OR DAYCARE LOCATIONS WITHOUT WARRANTED LEGAL JUDGEMENT DIRECTLY ADMINISTERED & BEING CARRIED OUT FROM THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS PERSONALLY & OUR FAMILY PROTECTION WEBSITE CAN BE REVIEWED AT: http://CHILDANDFAMILYPROTECTIONSERVICESCANADA.com ...
(THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS & FREEDOMS & THE CANADIAN CRIMINAL CODE ARE ALSO STRICTLY ENFORCED UNCONDITIONALLY & ALL NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE FAMILY MATTERS ARE TO BE HELD IN THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY COURT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION UNCONDITIONALLY.
29A.     EVERY QUALIFIED NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE ADMINISTERED THE AUTHORITY STATUS OF A NATIONAL CIVILIAN HUMAN RIGHTS LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENT. NATIONAL CIVILIAN HUMAN RIGHTS LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS HAVE THE SOVEREIGN RIGHTS TO: INDEPENDENTLY ASSIST WITH LOCAL / NATIONAL DUTIES OF LAW ENFORCEMENT / COMMUNITY SAFETY & PROTECTION, TO PARTICIPATE IN INDEPENDENT CRIME PREVENTION / CRIME REDUCTION STRATEGIES & TO ASSIST WITH MAINTAINING MORE PEACEFUL / MORE CIVIL SOCIETIES FOR OUR CITIZENS TO RESIDE IN WITHIN THE BORDERS OF CANADA. NATIONAL CIVILIAN HUMAN RIGHTS LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENTS RESERVE THE RIGHT TO EXERCISE AUTHORITY OVER HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATORS, CRIMINAL OFFENDERS & TO ENFORCE LAW & ORDER, ENFORCE CRIME PREVENTION, CONDUCT CITIZEN'S ARRESTS & SERVE LAWFUL NOTICES OF OFFENSES / FINES / COURT DATES AGAINST HUMAN RIGHTS LAW OFFENDERS, CRIMINAL CODE LAW OFFENDERS & ANY OFFENDERS / VIOLATORS OF ANY BY-LAWS, MANDATES OR REGULATIONS CONTAINED IN ANY OF OUR LAWFULLY REGISTERED CORPORATIONS / HUMAN RIGHTS INSTITUTIONS / NATIONAL NEGRO ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATED CORPORATIONS,  CONSTITUTIONS OR ANY CORPORATE MANDATES, BY-LAWS, REGULATIONS, PROVISIONS, STATUTES OR CORPORATION POLICIES LAWFULLY REGISTERED WITH CORPORATIONS CANADA BY OUR AUTHORIZED ASSOCIATIONS OR THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
30.     THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT RESERVES THE SOVEREIGN, EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS & AUTHORITY TO INITIATE/PRESIDE OVER & ADJUDICATE COURT PROCEEDINGS, TO ASSESS / MAKE JUDGEMENTS IN COURT PROCEEDINGS, EXECUTE JUDGEMENTS IN CIVIL LAWSUIT / LITIGATION TO RESTORE / ADMINISTER JUSTICE REGARDING ANY PREVIOUSLY / PAST HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED AGAINST ANY INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE PERSON / CITIZEN WITHOUT BEING SUBJECTED TO ANY FORM OF TIME LIMITS OR STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS OR EXPIRY DATES INTERFERING WITH OUR DECISIONS ON HOW FAR BACK INTO HISTORY WE DECIDE TO GO TO READDRESS / INITIATE / EXECUTE LAWFUL JUDGEMENTS / LITIGATION / COURT PROCEEDINGS BASED ON HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED AGAINST OUR PEOPLE RESULTING FROM INDICTABLE OFFENSES COMMITTED AGAINST US IN THE PAST, JUST AS EQUALLY AS IT'S STATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CRIMINAL CODE OF CANADA WHICH HAS NO STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS ON INDICTABLE OFFENSES.
30A.     THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT RESERVES THE SOVEREIGN, EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS & AUTHORITY TO INITIATE & FULLY COMPLETE THE LAWFUL ADJUDICATION OF SELF GOVERNED HUMAN RIGHTS COURT PROCEEDINGS TO ADMINISTER JUSTICE TO OUR PEOPLE (OUR PEOPLE DON'T GET TO DECIDE WHETHER JUSTICE IS ADMINISTRATION IS SERVED, THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT  RESERVES FULL AUTHORITY TO INDEPENDENTLY, FULLY ADJUDICATE ENTIRE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS ADDRESSING ANY CRIME, HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION COMMITTED AGAINST ANY ONE OR GROUP OF OUR CITIZENS / RELATIVE POPULATION, WITHOUT EVER NEEDING OR REQUIRING ANY INDIVIDUAL VICTIM OR FAMILY MEMBERS CONSENT TO ADMINISTER JUSTICE TO OUR PEOPLE REGARDLESS OF THEIR ABSENCE, DEATH, INJURY, DISABILITY, DISAGREEMENT, DISAPPROVAL, DISAPPEARANCE OR DISENGAGEMENT, THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT WILL ADMINISTER LAWFUL JUDGEMENTS BASED SOLELY UPON THE FACTS FROM EVIDENCE, INCIDENT REPORTS, WITNESSES OR DOCUMENTED RECORDS OF THE INCIDENTS OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED AGAINST OUR PEOPLE THROUGHOUT HISTORY & INTO THE FUTURE UNCONDITIONALLY...REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES.
THE STATUTES / CONSTITUTION RIGHTS CONTAINED IN THIS HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION ARE NEVER TO BE COMPROMISED OR REDUCED IN ANY WAY SHAPE OR FORM BY ANY PERSON / AUTHORITY OR GOVERNMENT BODY.
30B.        EVERY INDIGENOUS ISRAELITE CITIZEN HAS THE RIGHT TO BE GRANTED ALL OF THE ABOVE 30 FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS & FREEDOMS ANYWHERE WITHIN THE BORDERS OF THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS NEGRO ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOCIETIES AS WELL AS ANYWHERE WITHIN THE BORDERS OF ALL CANADIAN TERRITORIES / CANADIAN SOCIETIES NATIONALLY.
FUNDAMENTAL STATUTES OF THE NATIONAL UNITARY INDIGENOUS NEGRO ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY: 
REGARDING OUR PEOPLE'S INDIVIDUAL & FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT TO BE RESTORED WITH FINANCIAL REPARATIONS & SYSTEMATIC OPPRESSION RETRIBUTIONS TOTALING AT LEAST THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENT LOW INCOME RESTORATION RIGHT OF $24,900/ANNUALLY EACH; ADMINISTERED THROUGH THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT FOR A MINIMUM OF 10 YEARS CONSECUTIVELY, THIS HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION & THE NECESSITY TO HAVE THAT STANDARD MINIMUM FINANCIAL LOW INCOME RESTORATION RIGHT IS ALSO OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT RIGHT TO RECEIVE THROUGH  THE HONORABLE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS & THE HONORABLE PARLIAMENT OF CANADA, THE HONORABLE PRIME MINISTER JUSTIN TRUDEAU & THE HONORABLE MONARCHY OF CANADA IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS & FREEDOMS, WITH ALL DUE RESPECT FOR THE HUMAN RIGHTS, LAW & JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION IN CANADA & WITHIN THE UNITED NATIONS COLLECTIVELY, WHO WE NEED CONFIRMATION FROM ASAP, TO CONFIRM THEY ARE EXECUTING FULL AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT TO ENFORCE & ADJUDICATE THE ULTIMATE JUDGEMENT, TO EXECUTE THE FINANCIAL DISTRIBUTION & SOCIAL JUSTICE ACCOUNTABILITY TO ACCOUNT FOR SLAVERY / RACIAL OPPRESSION REPARATIONS & TO RESTORE THE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS / RACIAL IMPOVERISHMENT MY PEOPLE HAVE BEEN TARGETED TO SUFFER AT THE HANDS OF THE GOVERNMENTS INVOLVED IN THE HISTORIC TERRORISM, ENSLAVEMENT & IMPOVERISHMENT MY PEOPLE HAVE BEEN FORCED TO ENDURE THROUGHOUT THE PAST 400 YEARS SINCE THE TRANS ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. THE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ADMINISTERING THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS FINANCIAL REVITALIZATION & ISRAELITE SELF GOVERNMENT RESTORATION JUDGEMENT WHICH CALCULATES TO AT LEAST $40-$50 BILLION CANADIAN DOLLARS X 10 YEARS / SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT / RESTORATION PLAN / REPARATIONS FINANCING FROM THE WORLD BANK CURRENCY PRODUCTION AS WE AGREE & RESERVE THE HUMAN RIGHT TO OBTAIN AS A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT GOVERNING OVER A MILLION + POPULATION, RESPECTIVELY.
ULTIMATELY NOW, THE RESPONSIBLE/ ACCOUNTABLE GOVERNMENT THAT HAS ENSLAVED OUR PEOPLE HERE IN CANADA & HAVE YET TO RESTORE OUR HUMAN RIGHTS TO RACIAL EQUALITY & ETHNIC NATIONAL SELF-GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL INDEPENDENCE OUR CAPTOR NATION HAS NEVER RESTORED US WITH, CAN NOW ASSIST WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, AND SIGN ON AS SUPPORTING UNITED NATION CO-OPERATING HUMAN RIGHTS ADVANCEMENT SUPPORTERS OF THIS HUMAN RIGHTS DECLARATION WITH HONORABLE APPRECIATION OUR PEOPLE HAVE BEEN WAITING TO EXTEND ONTO OUR HONORABLE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT / THE HONORABLE JUSTIN TRUDEAU & THE HONORABLE UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS. REESTABLISHING OUR SELF GOVERNMENT STATUS, SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS, SOCIAL JUSTICE, ECONOMIC EQUALITY & INTERGOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT FINANCING IS ABSOLUTELY & DESPERATELY NEEDED TO ENABLE OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT'S GOVERNING CAPABILITIES, BUT YET HAS OUR CAPTOR GOVERNMENT PROVIDED US WITH THE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF SLAVERY / RACIAL OPPRESSION REPARATIONS FUNDING, NOR HAVE THEY PROVIDED ANY SUBSTANTIAL FINANCING FOR OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT TO REBUILD OUR OWN ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE / TERRITORY WHICH WE REQUIRE LAND OF AT LEAST THE MINIMUM REQUIRED 5KM SQ WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF TORONTO, WHERE OUR MAJORITY POPULATION OCCUPIES TO BE RESERVED FOR US WITH THE $40-$50 BILLION YEARLY 10 YEAR SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PLAN, WE HAVE CAREFULLY CALCULATED, WOULD HAVE OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE POPULATION OF 1 MILLION+ PEOPLE, FULLY REJUVENATED, REVITALIZED, UPGRADED & RESTORED TO THE STANDARD LOW INCOME STATUS OF $24,900 ANNUALLY WITH A 10 YEAR GUARANTEED CONTINUATION ON THAT MINIMUM LOW INCOME RESTORATION RIGHT FINANCING PLAN TO ENSURE THAT EVERY 15 DAYS OUR CITIZENS CAN GRADUALLY UTILIZE THE $1200 BI-WEEKLY BANK ACCOUNT CREDITS, TO REIMBURSE OUR HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION RETRIBUTIONS & TO HELP US & OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT, PROVIDE OUR POPULATION WITH MANDATORY EMPLOYMENT / EDUCATION REDISTRIBUTION BENEFITS & SOCIAL INSTITUTION RESOURCES TO SOLIDIFY & REBUILD THE SOCIAL JUSTICE & ECONOMIC EQUALITY RESTORATION RIGHTS WE HAVE BEEN DEPRIVED OF AS A RACE OF PEOPLE FOR OVER 400 YEARS UP UNTIL THIS VERY DAY, UNJUSTIFIABLY.
OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT HAS ALSO SERVED THIS SLAVERY & RACIAL OPPRESSION REPARATIONS APPLICATION BEFORE OUR HONORABLE FEDERAL PRIME MINISTER: MR. JUSTIN TRUDEAU (WHO IS A CERTIFIED HUMAN RIGHTS STAND UP LEADER) AND WE HAVE CONTINUALLY ASKED / PLEADED WITH THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FINANCING CO-ORDINATION CALCULATIONS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR THE JUSTIFIED HUMAN RIGHTS RESTORATION FINANCES TO BE ISSUED TO RESTORE & REBUILD THE ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE (WHICH WOULD BE CONTAINED WITHIN A 5KM SQ LAND AREA), TO SUPPORT REBUILDING OUR ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT'S SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND TO ADMINISTER THE REPARATIONS PAYMENTS OF 24,000 YEAR EACH PERSON TO US JUSTIFIABLY, WITH A POPULATION OF JUST OVER A MILLION PEOPLE, WE CAN GOVERN & BUILD 25 - 24 STORY BUILDINGS TO ACCOMMODATE 100,000 RESIDENTS & GOVERN A MILLION OF OUR CITIZENS, EDUCATE THEM, EMPLOY THEM & REVITALIZE THEM WITH PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES, WE WERE SEEKING BETWEEN AT LEAST 40 - 50 BILLION A YEAR FOR 10 YEARS TO ACCOMPLISH (EVEN IF THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT WAS GRANTED THE RIGHT TO HAVE OUR OWN CURRENCY DEVELOPED BY THE WORLD BANK TO BE JUSTIFIED WITH SOCIAL JUSTICE IN MIND WOULD BE APPROPRIATE ALSO IF THE ISRAELITE CURRENCY CAN BE IMPLEMENTED WITH A CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATE EQUAL TO THE VALUE OF THE CANADIAN DOLLAR FOR AT LEAST 25 YEARS WOULD BE SUBSTANTIAL ENOUGH TO REDEVELOP OUR ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENT PROCESS.)
BUT PLEASE HONORABLE PRIME MINISTER, AS ONE OF YOUR RACIALLY OPPRESSED & ENSLAVED SOCIETIES NOW POTENTIALLY BEING REJUVENATED WITH REPARATIONS & SEGREGATED WITH JUST THE MINIMUM INCOME RESTORATION RIGHT TO SERVE AS REPARATIONS FOR A MILLION DESCENDANTS OF THE RACIALLY OPPRESSED CANADIAN ISRAELITES THAT CANADA ENSLAVED & CAPTURED IN SERVITUDE, IT'S $25 BILLION A YEAR, WHICH YOUR SUPPORT WILL BE RECOGNIZED AS THE MOST HONORABLE ACT OF HUMAN RIGHTS RESTORATION SINCE JESUS CHRIST WAS RESURRECTED & THE MOST HIGH GOD WOULD LOOK GRACIOUSLY UPON THE RECONSIDERATION OF THE CONSEQUENCES PROMISED TO THE OPPRESSORS IN THE ISRAELITE BIBLE'S BOOK OF REVELATIONS, POTENTIALLY SAVING MILLIONS OF CANADIANS FROM DESTRUCTION AT THE HANDS OF AN ANGRY GOD RATHER THAN THE MERCY OF A FORGIVING GOD. PLEASE MR PRIME MINISTER JUSTIN TRUDEAU & THE HONORABLE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL, PLEASE RE-EVALUATE A JUSTIFIED AMOUNT TO ADMINISTER TO RE-ESTABLISH THE STABILITY OF OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY, PLEASE.... WE ARE NOT ASKING FOR ANY LAND ANYWHERE ELSE EXCEPT FOR WHERE WE CALL HOME HERE IN THE GTA AREA OF CANADA. PLEASE RESTORE OUR HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL JUSTICE & ECONOMIC EQUALITY / ETHNIC NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE / SELF DETERMINATION AS AN EXISTING NATIONAL GOVERNMENT STILL DEPRIVED OF EQUALITY.
FINAL NATIONAL INDIGENOUS/ NEGRO / ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY SLAVERY REPARATIONS/ HUMAN RIGHTS RESTORATION / ETHNIC NATIONAL SELF DETERMINATION  & NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE DECLARATION STATEMENTS BEING PROCLAIMED / REQUESTED IN THE NAME OF JUSTICE, TO THE HONORABLE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL, THE HONORABLE WORLD BANK GROUP, THE HONORABLE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ORGANIZATION, THE HONORABLE PRIME MINISTER OF CANADA; JUSTIN TRUDEAU, THE HONORABLE MONARCHY OF CANADA & THE HONORABLE PARLIAMENT OF CANADA;

PLEASE,  RE-EVALUATE A JUSTIFIED AMOUNT TO ADMINISTER TO RE-ESTABLISH THE STABILITY OF
OUR NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY, PLEASE.... WE ARE NOT ASKING FOR ANY
LAND ANYWHERE ELSE EXCEPT FOR WHERE WE ALREADY CALL HOME HERE IN THE GTA AREA OF
CANADA. PLEASE RESTORE OUR HUMAN RIGHTS, & OUR SELF GOVERNANCE RIGHTS TO SOCIAL
JUSTICE & ECONOMIC EQUALITY / ETHNIC NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE / SELF DETERMINATION AS
AN EXISTING NATIONAL GOVERNMENT STILL DEPRIVED OF EQUALITY.

WE ARE THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS / NEGRO / ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY.
WE ARE YOUR FRIENDS, ALLIES & THE SYSTEMATICALLY OPPRESSED / FORMERLY ENSLAVED
CHILDREN OF GOD, PLEASE HELP US RESTORE OUR HUMAN RIGHTS TO SOCIAL JUSTICE, ECONOMIC
EQUALITY, ETHNIC NATIONALISM, SELF DETERMINATION & INDEPENDENCE, PLEASE...
ONTARIO, CANADA HAS MILLIONS OF ACRES OF UNOCCUPIED LAND WE CAN UTILIZE FOR THIS
HUMAN RIGHTS RESTORATION PLAN TO LEAD THE WORLD OUT OF THE HEARTFELT UNREPAIRED
CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY, SUFFERED BY OUR ISRAELITE PEOPLE, STRIVING TO OVERCOME A 400 YR
HISTORY OF UNJUSTIFIED, UNRESTORED SLAVERY / RACIAL OPPRESSION CYCLE, SUFFERED BY OUR
SURVIVING DESCENDANTS OF THE HORRIFIC TRANS ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE.

IN YOUR  JUST DECISIONS MADE IN RIGHTEOUSNESS & REPARATIONAL CORRECTIONS & SUPPORT;
MAY THE MOST HIGH ALMIGHTY HEAVENLY FATHER GOD OF ALL CREATION - YAHAYAH, BLESS US
ALL WITH HIS MERCY, IN THE NAME OF OUR MESSIAH YAHSHYAH, THROUGH THE HEAVENLY HOLY
SPIRIT... HALLELLUYAH!!!

 IN NO WAY, SHAPE OR FORM DOES THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT EVER INTEND TO PARTAKE IN ANY HOSTILITY OR CONFLICT AGAINST ANY OUTSIDE INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP OR NATIONAL AUTHORITY! THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT IS & ALWAYS WILL BE PEACEFUL, RESPECTFUL & INVITING TO ALL RACES OF PEOPLE, AND WE SOLEMNLY VOW TO PEACEFULLY & WILLINGLY CO-OPERATE WITH ALL NATIONAL AUTHORITIES LAW ENFORCEMENT EFFORTS & ALL CANADIAN NATIONAL GOVERNMENT'S PEACE KEEPING PROTOCOLS REGARDLESS OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES. THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT IS ALSO 100% WILLING TO PEACEFULLY CO-OPERATE WITH THE UNITED NATIONS / NATIONAL GOVERNMENT FORCES / LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES TO HELP KEEP THE PEACE, TO HELP APPREHEND ANY LAWBREAKERS WITHIN OUR SOCIETIES, TO HELP PREVENT UNLAWFUL BEHAVIOR & PROTECT OUR SOCIETIES FROM CRIMINAL ACTIVITY AT ALL TIMES WITHIN ANY ENVIRONMENT WHERE OUR ISRAELITE CITIZENS & GOVERNMENT ARE PERMITTED TO OCCUPY BY THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OF CANADA,... AND THE ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT ALSO VOWS TO KEEP THE LAWS OF THE LAND, SPECIFICALLY, COMPLYING WITH & ENFORCING THE CANADIAN CRIMINAL CODE LAW & ALL INTERNATIONAL LAWS OF WORLD PEACE, COMMUNITY & PUBLIC SAFETY, HELPING TO ENSURE NATIONAL SECURITY, PROMISING PEACEFUL PUBLIC ASSEMBLY & FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS & FREEDOMS.
SIGNED ON FEB.26TH. 2019 BY THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS/NEGRO/ISRAELITE UNITARY GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY PRINCIPAL AUTHORITY: FOUNDER / PRESIDENT / PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR / SOVEREIGN CHIEF AMBASSADOR /CHIEF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATOR:
KING DAVID REINCARNATED (KING-DAVID BENYAHMIN-YAHUDAH YAHQUB-YSRYAHEL) aka MR.A.MILLER & Supporting Israelite Government Officials

THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION & THE MOST HIGH SUPREME ISRAELITE COURT OF JUSTICE & APPEALS COURT ARE DIVISIONS OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY AND OUR JUDICIAL SYSTEM IS STRUCTURED ALMOST IDENTICAL TO THE COURT SYSTEM OF CANADA. 

NOTICE: ALL SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION COURT PROCEEDINGS & ALL SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE & APPEALS COURT PROCEEDINGS / COURT DECISIONS ARE EXCLUSIVELY ADJUDICATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS CODE, THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS & FREEDOMS CODE, THE CRIMINAL CODE OF CANADA & THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS ISRAELITE DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS & FREEDOMS CODE AND ALL COURT CASE ADJUDICATION REMAINS UNDER THE EXCLUSIVE DIRECTION & POWERS OF THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE MOST HIGH SUPREME COURT & THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION. CIVIL PROCEEDINGS AND HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE PROCEEDINGS WILL BE ADJUDICATED & CONDUCTED BY THE JUDGES PANEL APPOINTED TO PRESIDE OVER EACH PARTICULAR CIVIL MATTER & WILL BE ADJUDICATED IN PRIVATE COUNCIL MEETINGS BETWEEN PLAINTIFF / VICTIM'S, WITNESSES & DEFENDANT'S / DEFENDANT'S LAWYER'S TO DETERMINE THE FACTS OF THE MATTER, TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF EVIDENCE & TO ASSESS THE CREDIBILITY OF STATEMENTS SUBMITTED FOR EACH CASE BEING EVALUATED BEFORE THE COURT.

A MEMBER OF THE JUDICIAL PANEL WILL MAKE A RELIABLE RECORD OF ALL SUBMISSIONS GIVEN IN EACH PARTICULAR MATTER WHICH WILL BE ASSESSED & EVALUATED BY THE APPOINTED JUDGES PANEL TO DETERMINE THE FINAL JUDGEMENT OF ANY LEGAL / CIVIL MATTER BEING ADJUDICATED BY THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION OR THE MOST HIGH SUPREME ISRAELITE COURT OF JUSTICE & APPEALS COURT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL LAWS OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM / NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY.

National sovereignty is the International law stating that independent nations, which have declared their independence, have an organized government and are self-contained, have a right to exist & govern their own affairs without other nations interfering. It is essentially the unspoken rule of a nation's right to exist & govern itself & it's social institutions independently, without interference from external governments even when the sovereign nation exists within the territory of another sovereign nation.

THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION

How the Court System of Canada is Organized

Each type of court has its own jurisdiction, which means that it has the authority to decide specific types of cases. Canada has four levels of court.

  1. Provincial and territorial (lower) courts: These courts handle most cases that come into the system. They are established by provincial and territorial governments.
  2. Provincial and territorial superior courts: These are courts of plenary, or complete, jurisdiction established under section 96 of the Constitution Act, 1867. They deal with more serious crimes and also hear appeals from provincial and territorial courts. The Federal Court is on the same level, but is responsible for deciding civil matters assigned to it by statute, such as immigration and patents.
  3. Provincial and territorial courts of appeal and the Federal Court of Appeal.
  4. The Supreme Court of Canada, which is the final court of appeal for Canada.

Provincial/territorial courts

Each province and territory has a provincial/territorial court and hears cases involving either federal or provincial/territorial laws.

In Nunavut, the Nunavut Court of Justice, which is Canada’s only single-level trial court, combines the power of the superior trial court and the territorial court so that the same judge can hear all cases that arise in the territory.

Provincial/territorial courts deal with:

  • most criminal offences, except the most serious ones;
  • family law matters (e.g., child support, child protection, adoption, but not divorce);
  • young persons from 12 to 17 years old in conflict with the law;
  • traffic and bylaw violations;
  • provincial/territorial regulatory offences;
  • claims involving money, up to a certain amount (set by the province or territory in question);
  • small claims (civil cases that resolve private disputes involving limited sums of money); and
  • all preliminary inquiries (hearings to determine whether there is enough evidence to justify a full trial in serious criminal cases).

Outline of Canada's Court System

Outline of Canada's Court System

Outline of Canada’s Court System – Text version

Some courts at this level are dedicated to particular types of offences or groups of offenders. One example is the Drug Treatment Court. The object of these courts is to address the needs of non-violent offenders who are charged with criminal offences that were motivated by their addiction. Those who qualify are offered judicial supervision and treatment for their addiction, with the help of community support services.

Youth courts handle cases for young people 12 to 17 years old who are charged with an offence under federal youth justice laws. Youth courts provide protections appropriate to the age of the accused, including protecting his or her privacy. Any court at either the provincial/territorial or superior court level can be designated a youth court.

All provinces and territories have established Domestic Violence Courts so that the justice system can improve its response to incidents of spousal abuse, provide better support to victims, and make offenders more accountable. These courts do this by

  • decreasing court processing time;
  • increasing prosecution rates;
  • providing a focal point for programs and services for victims and offenders; and
  • allowing police, Crown prosecutors, and, in some cases, the judiciary to specialize in domestic violence matters.

Provincial/territorial superior courts

Each province and territory has superior courts, which are courts of “inherent jurisdiction.” This means that they can hear cases in any area except when a statute or rule limits that authority. The superior courts try the most serious criminal and civil cases. These include divorce cases and cases that involve large amounts of money (the minimum is set by the province or territory in question). The jurisdiction of superior courts originally came from the first courts in England, whose authority over government actions was based on Magna Carta. Proceedings in superior courts are thus a continuation of a court process that dates right back to the beginnings of the common law system.

The superior courts also act as a court of first appeal for the provincial and territorial courts that the provinces and territories maintain. Although the provinces and territories administer superior courts, the federal government appoints and pays the judges.

Although there are permanent court houses and judicial centres in all of Canada’s provinces and territories, Canada’s population is scattered widely across huge expanses of land, and it may be difficult for individuals to travel to a court house to have their matter heard. In response, courts often travel "on circuit" to small or isolated areas.

For example, in Nunavut, most of the communities are small and isolated from Iqaluit, the capital, so the court travels to them. The circuit court includes a judge, a clerk, a court reporter, a prosecutor, and at least one defence attorney. Interpreters are hired in the communities when possible, or travel with the circuit court when necessary. The court holds regular sessions in Iqaluit and flies to about 85 percent of all 25 communities in Nunavut, as often as every six weeks or as seldom as every two years, depending on how often it’s needed.

Family courts

In most provinces and territories, the superior court has special divisions, such as the family division. Some superior courts have established specialized family courts to deal with specific family law matters, including divorce and property claims.

Several provinces (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan) use unified family courts. This allows a single court to deal with all aspects of family law, using specialized superior court judges and services. These courts encourage constructive, non-adversarial techniques to resolve issues, and provide access to support services through community organizations. These services typically include such programs as parent-education sessions, mediation, and counselling.

Provincial/territorial courts of appeal

Each province and territory also has a court of appeal. These courts hear appeals from the decisions of the superior courts and the provincial/territorial courts. These can include commercial disputes, property disputes, negligence claims, family disputes, bankruptcies, and corporate reorganizations. Appeals are usually heard by a panel of three judges. The courts of appeal also hear constitutional questions that may be raised in appeals involving individuals, governments, or governmental agencies.

How Does Canada’s Court System Work?

Courts in Canada help people resolve disputes fairly – whether they are between individuals, or between individuals and the state. At the same time, courts interpret and pronounce law, set standards, and decide questions that affect all aspects of Canadian society.

Canada’s judiciary is one branch of our system of government, the others being the legislature and the executive. Whereas the judiciary resolves disputes according to law – including disputes about how legislative and executive powers are exercised – the legislature (Parliament) has the power to make, alter and repeal laws. The executive branch (in particular, the prime minister and ministers, the public service, as well as a variety of agencies, boards, and commissions) is responsible for administering and enforcing the laws.

The courts interpret and apply the Constitution, as well as legislation passed by both levels of government. They also develop and apply the common law.

Independent courts are the hallmark of a strong democratic society.

Canada’s system of courts is complex. Each province and territory has its own courts, as well as courts that have national jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Canada presides over the entire system.

The courts’ primary task is administering justice – that is, ensuring that disputes are settled and crimes are prosecuted fairly and in accordance with Canada’s legal and constitutional structure. The provinces and territories are responsible for providing everything the courts under their jurisdiction need, from building and maintaining the courthouses, to providing staff and resources, such as interpreters, court reporters to prepare transcripts, sheriffs, and registry services, to paying provincial/territorial court judges. The federal government appoints and pays judges for the superior courts in each province, as well as judges at the federal level. It is also responsible for the administration of the Supreme Court of Canada and federally created courts.

Most disputes are settled before they are heard by a judge.

Courts are not the only mechanism for settling differences between people. Less formal processes include alternative dispute resolution, private commercial arbitration, and appearing before administrative boards and tribunals. Even for issues that never get to court, court decisions influence people’s choices and actions. They provide guidance on what the law is, and how people should conduct themselves to ensure they are in compliance with it.

In the sections that follow we explain the structure of the court system – how the courts are organized and how the various elements connect to one another. The final section looks at some of the principles and institutions that help keep Canada’s court system fair and independent.

Courts and Other Bodies Under Federal Jurisdiction

The federal court system runs parallel to the provincial and territorial court systems and consists of the Federal Court and the Federal Court of Appeal. The judges of these courts (as well as the Tax Court of Canada, described below) are based in Ottawa, but travel across the country to hear cases. They deal with certain matters specified in federal statutes (laws), such as immigration and refugee law, navigation and shipping, intellectual property, and tax. They can also deal with matters of national defence, security, and international relations.

The Federal Court

The Federal Court is Canada’s national trial court. It hears and decides federal legal disputes whose subject matter has been assigned to the Court by Parliament.

These disputes include

  • claims against the Government of Canada;
  • civil suits between private parties in federally-regulated areas; and
  • reviews of the decisions of most federal tribunals.

The Federal Court’s jurisdiction includes

  • interprovincial and many federal-provincial disputes;
  • immigration and refugee matters;
  • intellectual property proceedings (e.g., copyright);
  • citizenship appeals;
  • Competition Act cases; and
  • cases involving Crown corporations or departments of the Government of Canada.

The federal courts have the power to review decisions, orders, and other administrative actions of most federal boards, commissions, and tribunals. That means most federal government decisions can be challenged in a federal court. With some exceptions, those bodies may refer questions of law, jurisdiction, or practice to one of the federal courts at any stage of a proceeding.

In some areas of law, such as maritime law, the Federal Court shares jurisdiction with the provincial superior courts. It also has concurrent jurisdiction with respect to civil claims against the federal government.

The Federal Court of Appeal

The Federal Court of Appeal hears appeals from the Federal Court and the Tax Court of Canada, and judicial reviews of certain federal tribunals listed in the Federal Courts Act. Like provincial and territorial courts of appeal, its decisions can only be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada. The Court hears most legal matters under federal jurisdiction or that involve the federal government.

It has three basic roles:

  1. to ensure that federal law is applied consistently throughout Canada;
  2. to conduct judicial reviews of specified federal decision makers, as listed in section 28 of the Federal Courts Act; and
  3. to provide an avenue of appeal from decisions of the Federal Court and the Tax Court of Canada.

Specialized Federal Courts

The federal government has created specialized courts to deal more effectively with certain areas of the law. These include the Tax Court of Canada and the courts that serve the military justice system: the military courts and the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. These courts have been created by statute and can only decide matters that fall within the jurisdiction given to them by those statutes. The Tax Court thus deals with tax matters defined under the Tax Court of Canada Act and the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada hears appeals from courts martial.

The Tax Court of Canada

The Tax Court of Canada is a superior court that determines cases and appeals about matters that arise under federal tax and revenue legislation. The Tax Court of Canada hears disputes between the federal government and taxpayers after the taxpayer has pursued all other avenues provided for by the Income Tax Act. The Tax Court is independent of the Canada Revenue Agency and all other government departments.

Military Courts

Military courts, or courts martial, are established under the National Defence Act to hear cases involving the Code of Service Discipline. The Code applies to all members of the Canadian Forces as well as civilians who accompany the Forces on active service. It lays out a system of disciplinary offences designed to further the good order and proper functioning of the Canadian Forces.

The Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada hears appeals from military courts. Judges in the Court Martial Appeal Court are selected from the federal courts and other superior courts throughout the country. Like other courts of appeal, a panel of three judges hears cases in the Court Martial Appeal Court.

The Supreme Court of Canada

The Supreme Court of Canada is the final court of appeal from all other Canadian courts. It has jurisdiction over disputes in all areas of the law. These include constitutional law, administrative law, criminal law, and civil law. The Court does not hold trials, but hears appeals from all other Canadian appeal courts.

The Court consists of a Chief Justice and eight other justices. Members of the Court are appointed by the federal government as new vacancies occur. Three judges traditionally come from Ontario, two from Western Canada, and one from the Atlantic provinces. In addition, the Supreme Court Act requires that at least three judges must come from Quebec.

The Supreme Court sits in Ottawa for three sessions a year - winter, spring, and fall. Each year the Supreme Court considers an average of between 500 to 600 applications for leave to appeal and hears 65 to 80 appeals.

What Kinds of Cases Does the Supreme Court of Canada Hear?

The Supreme Court of Canada only hears cases that it considers to be of public importance and to have national significance. That could mean a case that raises an important issue of law, or mixed law and fact, or if the matter is, for any other reason, significant enough to be considered by the country’s highest court. In limited instances, there may also be an appeal as of right. Judgements of the Supreme Court are listed at http://www.scc-csc-gc.ca/home-accueil/index-eng.aspx.

Before a case can reach the Supreme Court of Canada, it must have used up all available appeals at other levels of court. Even then, the court usually must grant permission or “leave” to appeal before it will hear the case. Leave applications are usually made in writing and reviewed by three members of the court. They then grant or deny the request without providing reasons for the decision.

Did you know?

Each year the Supreme Court considers an average of between 500 to 600 applications for leave to appeal and hears 65 to 80 appeals.

The right to appeal is automatic in certain situations. For instance, no leave is required in criminal cases where a judge on the panel of a court of appeal has disagreed, or dissented, on how the law should be interpreted. It is also not required when a court of appeal has found someone guilty who had been acquitted at the original trial. That person automatically has the right to appeal to the Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court can also be asked by the Governor in Council to hear references. These are important questions of law, such as the constitutionality or interpretation of federal or provincial legislation, on which the Court is asked to give its opinion before an actual legal dispute arises. The federal government may ask the Court to consider questions on any important matter of law or fact, especially about how to interpret the Constitution. The Court may also be asked to interpret federal or provincial/territorial legislation or the powers of Parliament or the legislatures. Provincial and territorial courts of appeal may also be asked to hear references from their respective governments, which are then sometimes appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada.

Administrative Tribunals and Boards

Different kinds of administrative tribunals and boards deal with disputes over the interpretation and application of laws and regulations, such as entitlement to employment insurance or disability benefits, refugee claims, and human rights.

Administrative tribunals are less formal than courts and are not part of the court system. However, they play an essential role in resolving disputes in Canadian society. Decisions of administrative tribunals may be reviewed in court to ensure that tribunals act fairly and according to the law.

The Judiciary

Judicial independence

Judicial independence is a cornerstone of the Canadian judicial system. That is why, under the Constitution, the judiciary is separate from and independent of the other two branches of government, the executive and legislature. Judicial independence guarantees that judges will be able to make decisions free of influence and based solely on fact and law.

Nothing is more important in our justice system than having independent judges.

The principle of judicial independence has three components:

Security of tenure
Once appointed, a judge is eligible to serve on the bench until retirement (age 75 for federally appointed judges, age 70 in some provincial/territorial jurisdictions). Judges can be removed by a joint address of Parliament or a provincial legislature, only after an independent and impartial investigation shows that there is good reason (see Judicial Conduct, below).
Financial security
Judges must be guaranteed sufficient compensation (including salary and pension) so they are not subject to pressure for financial considerations. In Canada, governments cannot change judges’ salaries or benefits without first receiving the recommendations of an independent compensation commission.
Administrative independence
No one can interfere with how courts manage the legal process and exercise their judicial functions. For example, only the chief justice can choose how cases are assigned to the judges of his or her court.

Several institutions have been established to support judicial independence: these include the Canadian Judicial Council, the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs, the National Judicial Institute and the Courts Administration Service. They help keep the government and the judiciary separate in areas like discipline, pay and benefits, and continuing education for judges.

How are judges appointed?

The federal government appoints judges to the federal courts, the superior courts of the provinces/territories, and the Supreme Court of Canada. The Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs administers the advisory committees, representing each province and territory, which assess the qualifications of the lawyers who apply for federal judicial appointments. For example, a candidate for a federal appointment must have been a lawyer for at least ten years to be appointed and must be qualified to practise law in the jurisdiction in question.

The provincial and territorial governments appoint judges to provincial and territorial courts. There are similar eligibility requirements for provincial and territorial appointments.

All federally appointed judges are appointed by the Governor in Council. This consists of the Governor General acting on the advice of the Prime Minister for judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and chief and associate chief justices in the provinces; and on the advice of the Minister of Justice for all other superior court judges.

What training do judges receive?

In general, most judges have spent years in courtrooms or in the practice of law, and have extensive knowledge of court processes and the role of the judge. Once they are appointed, they can refine that knowledge by enrolling in educational programs at both the provincial/territorial and federal levels on all aspects of judging, as well as specific substantive areas of the law. The National Judicial Institute delivers programs for all federal, provincial, and territorial judges. The Institute is funded by each level of government, and regularly offers courses for new judges.

Judicial conduct

Each jurisdiction in Canada has a judicial council that is responsible for promoting and administering professional standards and conduct. For provincially and territorially appointed judges, each province or territory has a judicial council. Its members include judges, lawyers, and members of the general public. Judicial councils develop policies and codes of conduct to provide guidance for judges.

The Canadian Judicial Council (CJC) is responsible for federally appointed judges. It consists of the chief justices and associate chief justices of all of the federal courts and provincial/territorial superior courts. It promotes efficiency, consistency, and quality judicial service in these courts. One of the Council’s tasks is to investigate complaints and allegations of misconduct of federally appointed judges. The CJC has also developed a set of Ethical Principles for Judges. Their purpose is to help judges ensure that they maintain their independence, integrity, and impartiality.

If it finds evidence of serious misconduct, the CJC may recommend to the Minister of Justice that the judge be removed from office. The Minister of Justice may then seek the necessary approval of both the House of Commons and the Senate to have the judge removed from office. The removal processes for provincial/territorial judges vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but are similarly developed to protect judicial independence and ensure that the process operates independently.

Relevant laws relating to the judiciary

The manner in which judges are appointed and administered is governed by Part VII of the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982 and the Judges Act. The Justice Laws website provides the texts of these acts. Provincial and territorial statutes and regulations can be found on the websites of the respective jurisdictions.

The following organizations also support judges in Canada:

About the council

The Canadian Judicial Council is a federal body created under the Judges Act  with the mandate to promote efficiency, uniformity, and accountability, and to improve the quality of judicial service in the superior courts of Canada.

The Council is also mandated to review any complaint or allegation against a superior court judge or a prothonotary of the Federal Court.

The Council is chaired by the Chief Justice of Canada, currently the Right Honourable Richard Wagner.  There are 38 other Council members, who are the chief justices and associate chief justices of Canada’s superior courts, the senior judges of the territorial courts, and the Chief Justice of the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada.


Please explore our website, where in this section, you will learn about the following:

Mandate and Powers

How the Council works and the powers that it holds.

Council’s role in Conduct Matters

The authority of Council to review the conduct of federal judges.

Committees

Council does much of its work through permanent and standing committees.

Members and Staff

Supporting the work of Council is a small but dedicated team of professionals.

Expected Conduct of Judges

As Canadians, we expect our judges to display a high standard of personal conduct – both on and off the Bench.

If you believe that a judge has come to the wrong decision, you may wish to appeal that decision to a higher court.

If you believe that a judge has behaved in a way that is of concern, you may wish to make a complaint to the Council.

Consult our pamphlet on The Conduct of Judges and the Role of the Canadian Judicial Council.


In this section of our website, you can access the following information:

Judicial Conduct

Learn about the expected conduct of judges and the role of the Canadian Judicial Council.

Review the Ethical Principles for Judges that help guide the personal and professional conduct of our judges.

Making A Complaint

Find out how to make a complaint if you have a concern about a federal judge's conduct.

Access our Review Procedures.

Previous Complaints Online

View sample complaints from 1990 to 2012 here.

Inquiry Committee Decisions

Some conduct matters form the basis of Inquiry Committees. Find out about the outcomes of past Inquiry Committees.

For Lawyers and Judges

The work of Council is guided by established procedures and policies, by-laws and other legal resources, accessed here.

Review Procedures

All complaints made against federal judges are reviewed in accordance with the Review Procedures.

Inquiries and Investigation By-laws and Policies

On conduct matters that may warrant further inquiry, a complaint may be referred to a Panel or a Public Inquiry Committee. The Canadian Judicial Council Inquiries and Investigation By-laws provide formal direction to these activities. Additional policies to add clarity to certain aspects of Inquiry Committees have also recently been adopted.


Jury Instructions

Council is also active in drafting instructions for use by judges in communicating with juries on important matters. Model Jury Instructions can be accessed here.


If you are looking for information on:

Appointments to the Bench

Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs Canada
Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs Canada

Judicial Education

National Judicial Institute
National Judicial Institute

HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION
OFFICIAL9 DECLARATION OF NATIONAL ISRAELITE RIGHTS & FREEDOMS10

THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION & THE MOST HIGH SUPREME ISRAELITE COURT OF JUSTICE & APPEALS COURT ARE DIVISIONS OF THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT SOVEREIGNTY AND OUR JUDICIAL SYSTEM IS STRUCTURED ALMOST IDENTICAL TO THE COURT SYSTEM OF CANADA. 

NOTICE: ALL SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION COURT PROCEEDINGS & ALL SUPREME COURT OF JUSTICE & APPEALS COURT PROCEEDINGS / COURT DECISIONS ARE EXCLUSIVELY ADJUDICATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS CODE, THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS & FREEDOMS CODE, THE CRIMINAL CODE OF CANADA & THE NATIONAL INDIGENOUS ISRAELITE DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS & FREEDOMS CODE AND ALL COURT CASE ADJUDICATION REMAINS UNDER THE EXCLUSIVE DIRECTION & POWERS OF THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE MOST HIGH SUPREME COURT & THE CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION. CIVIL PROCEEDINGS AND HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE PROCEEDINGS WILL BE ADJUDICATED & CONDUCTED BY THE JUDGES PANEL APPOINTED TO PRESIDE OVER EACH PARTICULAR CIVIL MATTER & WILL BE ADJUDICATED IN PRIVATE COUNCIL MEETINGS BETWEEN PLAINTIFF / VICTIM'S, WITNESSES & DEFENDANT'S / DEFENDANT'S LAWYER'S TO DETERMINE THE FACTS OF THE MATTER, TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF EVIDENCE & TO ASSESS THE CREDIBILITY OF STATEMENTS SUBMITTED FOR EACH CASE BEING EVALUATED BEFORE THE COURT.

A MEMBER OF THE JUDICIAL PANEL WILL MAKE A RELIABLE RECORD OF ALL SUBMISSIONS GIVEN IN EACH PARTICULAR MATTER WHICH WILL BE ASSESSED & EVALUATED BY THE APPOINTED JUDGES PANEL TO DETERMINE THE FINAL JUDGEMENT OF ANY LEGAL / CIVIL MATTER BEING ADJUDICATED BY THE SUPERIOR COURT OF THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION OR THE MOST HIGH SUPREME ISRAELITE COURT OF JUSTICE & APPEALS COURT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL LAWS OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM / NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY.

National sovereignty is the International law stating that independent nations, which have declared their independence, have an organized government and are self-contained, have a right to exist & govern their own affairs without other nations interfering. It is essentially the unspoken rule of a nation's right to exist & govern itself & it's social institutions independently, without interference from external governments even when the sovereign nation exists within the territory of another sovereign nation.

THE NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION

How the Court System of Canada is Organized

Each type of court has its own jurisdiction, which means that it has the authority to decide specific types of cases. Canada has four levels of court.

  1. Provincial and territorial (lower) courts: These courts handle most cases that come into the system. They are established by provincial and territorial governments.
  2. Provincial and territorial superior courts: These are courts of plenary, or complete, jurisdiction established under section 96 of the Constitution Act, 1867. They deal with more serious crimes and also hear appeals from provincial and territorial courts. The Federal Court is on the same level, but is responsible for deciding civil matters assigned to it by statute, such as immigration and patents.
  3. Provincial and territorial courts of appeal and the Federal Court of Appeal.
  4. The Supreme Court of Canada, which is the final court of appeal for Canada.

Provincial/territorial courts

Each province and territory has a provincial/territorial court and hears cases involving either federal or provincial/territorial laws.

In Nunavut, the Nunavut Court of Justice, which is Canada’s only single-level trial court, combines the power of the superior trial court and the territorial court so that the same judge can hear all cases that arise in the territory.

Provincial/territorial courts deal with:

  • most criminal offences, except the most serious ones;
  • family law matters (e.g., child support, child protection, adoption, but not divorce);
  • young persons from 12 to 17 years old in conflict with the law;
  • traffic and bylaw violations;
  • provincial/territorial regulatory offences;
  • claims involving money, up to a certain amount (set by the province or territory in question);
  • small claims (civil cases that resolve private disputes involving limited sums of money); and
  • all preliminary inquiries (hearings to determine whether there is enough evidence to justify a full trial in serious criminal cases).

Outline of Canada's Court System

Outline of Canada's Court System

Outline of Canada’s Court System – Text version

Some courts at this level are dedicated to particular types of offences or groups of offenders. One example is the Drug Treatment Court. The object of these courts is to address the needs of non-violent offenders who are charged with criminal offences that were motivated by their addiction. Those who qualify are offered judicial supervision and treatment for their addiction, with the help of community support services.

Youth courts handle cases for young people 12 to 17 years old who are charged with an offence under federal youth justice laws. Youth courts provide protections appropriate to the age of the accused, including protecting his or her privacy. Any court at either the provincial/territorial or superior court level can be designated a youth court.

All provinces and territories have established Domestic Violence Courts so that the justice system can improve its response to incidents of spousal abuse, provide better support to victims, and make offenders more accountable. These courts do this by

  • decreasing court processing time;
  • increasing prosecution rates;
  • providing a focal point for programs and services for victims and offenders; and
  • allowing police, Crown prosecutors, and, in some cases, the judiciary to specialize in domestic violence matters.

Provincial/territorial superior courts

Each province and territory has superior courts, which are courts of “inherent jurisdiction.” This means that they can hear cases in any area except when a statute or rule limits that authority. The superior courts try the most serious criminal and civil cases. These include divorce cases and cases that involve large amounts of money (the minimum is set by the province or territory in question). The jurisdiction of superior courts originally came from the first courts in England, whose authority over government actions was based on Magna Carta. Proceedings in superior courts are thus a continuation of a court process that dates right back to the beginnings of the common law system.

The superior courts also act as a court of first appeal for the provincial and territorial courts that the provinces and territories maintain. Although the provinces and territories administer superior courts, the federal government appoints and pays the judges.

Although there are permanent court houses and judicial centres in all of Canada’s provinces and territories, Canada’s population is scattered widely across huge expanses of land, and it may be difficult for individuals to travel to a court house to have their matter heard. In response, courts often travel "on circuit" to small or isolated areas.

For example, in Nunavut, most of the communities are small and isolated from Iqaluit, the capital, so the court travels to them. The circuit court includes a judge, a clerk, a court reporter, a prosecutor, and at least one defence attorney. Interpreters are hired in the communities when possible, or travel with the circuit court when necessary. The court holds regular sessions in Iqaluit and flies to about 85 percent of all 25 communities in Nunavut, as often as every six weeks or as seldom as every two years, depending on how often it’s needed.

Family courts

In most provinces and territories, the superior court has special divisions, such as the family division. Some superior courts have established specialized family courts to deal with specific family law matters, including divorce and property claims.

Several provinces (Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan) use unified family courts. This allows a single court to deal with all aspects of family law, using specialized superior court judges and services. These courts encourage constructive, non-adversarial techniques to resolve issues, and provide access to support services through community organizations. These services typically include such programs as parent-education sessions, mediation, and counselling.

Provincial/territorial courts of appeal

Each province and territory also has a court of appeal. These courts hear appeals from the decisions of the superior courts and the provincial/territorial courts. These can include commercial disputes, property disputes, negligence claims, family disputes, bankruptcies, and corporate reorganizations. Appeals are usually heard by a panel of three judges. The courts of appeal also hear constitutional questions that may be raised in appeals involving individuals, governments, or governmental agencies.

How Does Canada’s Court System Work?

Courts in Canada help people resolve disputes fairly – whether they are between individuals, or between individuals and the state. At the same time, courts interpret and pronounce law, set standards, and decide questions that affect all aspects of Canadian society.

Canada’s judiciary is one branch of our system of government, the others being the legislature and the executive. Whereas the judiciary resolves disputes according to law – including disputes about how legislative and executive powers are exercised – the legislature (Parliament) has the power to make, alter and repeal laws. The executive branch (in particular, the prime minister and ministers, the public service, as well as a variety of agencies, boards, and commissions) is responsible for administering and enforcing the laws.

The courts interpret and apply the Constitution, as well as legislation passed by both levels of government. They also develop and apply the common law.

Independent courts are the hallmark of a strong democratic society.

Canada’s system of courts is complex. Each province and territory has its own courts, as well as courts that have national jurisdiction. The Supreme Court of Canada presides over the entire system.

The courts’ primary task is administering justice – that is, ensuring that disputes are settled and crimes are prosecuted fairly and in accordance with Canada’s legal and constitutional structure. The provinces and territories are responsible for providing everything the courts under their jurisdiction need, from building and maintaining the courthouses, to providing staff and resources, such as interpreters, court reporters to prepare transcripts, sheriffs, and registry services, to paying provincial/territorial court judges. The federal government appoints and pays judges for the superior courts in each province, as well as judges at the federal level. It is also responsible for the administration of the Supreme Court of Canada and federally created courts.

Most disputes are settled before they are heard by a judge.

Courts are not the only mechanism for settling differences between people. Less formal processes include alternative dispute resolution, private commercial arbitration, and appearing before administrative boards and tribunals. Even for issues that never get to court, court decisions influence people’s choices and actions. They provide guidance on what the law is, and how people should conduct themselves to ensure they are in compliance with it.

In the sections that follow we explain the structure of the court system – how the courts are organized and how the various elements connect to one another. The final section looks at some of the principles and institutions that help keep Canada’s court system fair and independent.

Courts and Other Bodies Under Federal Jurisdiction

The federal court system runs parallel to the provincial and territorial court systems and consists of the Federal Court and the Federal Court of Appeal. The judges of these courts (as well as the Tax Court of Canada, described below) are based in Ottawa, but travel across the country to hear cases. They deal with certain matters specified in federal statutes (laws), such as immigration and refugee law, navigation and shipping, intellectual property, and tax. They can also deal with matters of national defence, security, and international relations.

The Federal Court

The Federal Court is Canada’s national trial court. It hears and decides federal legal disputes whose subject matter has been assigned to the Court by Parliament.

These disputes include

  • claims against the Government of Canada;
  • civil suits between private parties in federally-regulated areas; and
  • reviews of the decisions of most federal tribunals.

The Federal Court’s jurisdiction includes

  • interprovincial and many federal-provincial disputes;
  • immigration and refugee matters;
  • intellectual property proceedings (e.g., copyright);
  • citizenship appeals;
  • Competition Act cases; and
  • cases involving Crown corporations or departments of the Government of Canada.

The federal courts have the power to review decisions, orders, and other administrative actions of most federal boards, commissions, and tribunals. That means most federal government decisions can be challenged in a federal court. With some exceptions, those bodies may refer questions of law, jurisdiction, or practice to one of the federal courts at any stage of a proceeding.

In some areas of law, such as maritime law, the Federal Court shares jurisdiction with the provincial superior courts. It also has concurrent jurisdiction with respect to civil claims against the federal government.

The Federal Court of Appeal

The Federal Court of Appeal hears appeals from the Federal Court and the Tax Court of Canada, and judicial reviews of certain federal tribunals listed in the Federal Courts Act. Like provincial and territorial courts of appeal, its decisions can only be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada. The Court hears most legal matters under federal jurisdiction or that involve the federal government.

It has three basic roles:

  1. to ensure that federal law is applied consistently throughout Canada;
  2. to conduct judicial reviews of specified federal decision makers, as listed in section 28 of the Federal Courts Act; and
  3. to provide an avenue of appeal from decisions of the Federal Court and the Tax Court of Canada.

Specialized Federal Courts

The federal government has created specialized courts to deal more effectively with certain areas of the law. These include the Tax Court of Canada and the courts that serve the military justice system: the military courts and the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada. These courts have been created by statute and can only decide matters that fall within the jurisdiction given to them by those statutes. The Tax Court thus deals with tax matters defined under the Tax Court of Canada Act and the Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada hears appeals from courts martial.

The Tax Court of Canada

The Tax Court of Canada is a superior court that determines cases and appeals about matters that arise under federal tax and revenue legislation. The Tax Court of Canada hears disputes between the federal government and taxpayers after the taxpayer has pursued all other avenues provided for by the Income Tax Act. The Tax Court is independent of the Canada Revenue Agency and all other government departments.

Military Courts

Military courts, or courts martial, are established under the National Defence Act to hear cases involving the Code of Service Discipline. The Code applies to all members of the Canadian Forces as well as civilians who accompany the Forces on active service. It lays out a system of disciplinary offences designed to further the good order and proper functioning of the Canadian Forces.

The Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada hears appeals from military courts. Judges in the Court Martial Appeal Court are selected from the federal courts and other superior courts throughout the country. Like other courts of appeal, a panel of three judges hears cases in the Court Martial Appeal Court.

The Supreme Court of Canada

The Supreme Court of Canada is the final court of appeal from all other Canadian courts. It has jurisdiction over disputes in all areas of the law. These include constitutional law, administrative law, criminal law, and civil law. The Court does not hold trials, but hears appeals from all other Canadian appeal courts.

The Court consists of a Chief Justice and eight other justices. Members of the Court are appointed by the federal government as new vacancies occur. Three judges traditionally come from Ontario, two from Western Canada, and one from the Atlantic provinces. In addition, the Supreme Court Act requires that at least three judges must come from Quebec.

The Supreme Court sits in Ottawa for three sessions a year - winter, spring, and fall. Each year the Supreme Court considers an average of between 500 to 600 applications for leave to appeal and hears 65 to 80 appeals.

What Kinds of Cases Does the Supreme Court of Canada Hear?

The Supreme Court of Canada only hears cases that it considers to be of public importance and to have national significance. That could mean a case that raises an important issue of law, or mixed law and fact, or if the matter is, for any other reason, significant enough to be considered by the country’s highest court. In limited instances, there may also be an appeal as of right. Judgements of the Supreme Court are listed at http://www.scc-csc-gc.ca/home-accueil/index-eng.aspx.

Before a case can reach the Supreme Court of Canada, it must have used up all available appeals at other levels of court. Even then, the court usually must grant permission or “leave” to appeal before it will hear the case. Leave applications are usually made in writing and reviewed by three members of the court. They then grant or deny the request without providing reasons for the decision.

Did you know?

Each year the Supreme Court considers an average of between 500 to 600 applications for leave to appeal and hears 65 to 80 appeals.

The right to appeal is automatic in certain situations. For instance, no leave is required in criminal cases where a judge on the panel of a court of appeal has disagreed, or dissented, on how the law should be interpreted. It is also not required when a court of appeal has found someone guilty who had been acquitted at the original trial. That person automatically has the right to appeal to the Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court can also be asked by the Governor in Council to hear references. These are important questions of law, such as the constitutionality or interpretation of federal or provincial legislation, on which the Court is asked to give its opinion before an actual legal dispute arises. The federal government may ask the Court to consider questions on any important matter of law or fact, especially about how to interpret the Constitution. The Court may also be asked to interpret federal or provincial/territorial legislation or the powers of Parliament or the legislatures. Provincial and territorial courts of appeal may also be asked to hear references from their respective governments, which are then sometimes appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada.

Administrative Tribunals and Boards

Different kinds of administrative tribunals and boards deal with disputes over the interpretation and application of laws and regulations, such as entitlement to employment insurance or disability benefits, refugee claims, and human rights.

Administrative tribunals are less formal than courts and are not part of the court system. However, they play an essential role in resolving disputes in Canadian society. Decisions of administrative tribunals may be reviewed in court to ensure that tribunals act fairly and according to the law.

The Judiciary

Judicial independence

Judicial independence is a cornerstone of the Canadian judicial system. That is why, under the Constitution, the judiciary is separate from and independent of the other two branches of government, the executive and legislature. Judicial independence guarantees that judges will be able to make decisions free of influence and based solely on fact and law.

Nothing is more important in our justice system than having independent judges.

The principle of judicial independence has three components:

Security of tenure
Once appointed, a judge is eligible to serve on the bench until retirement (age 75 for federally appointed judges, age 70 in some provincial/territorial jurisdictions). Judges can be removed by a joint address of Parliament or a provincial legislature, only after an independent and impartial investigation shows that there is good reason (see Judicial Conduct, below).
Financial security
Judges must be guaranteed sufficient compensation (including salary and pension) so they are not subject to pressure for financial considerations. In Canada, governments cannot change judges’ salaries or benefits without first receiving the recommendations of an independent compensation commission.
Administrative independence
No one can interfere with how courts manage the legal process and exercise their judicial functions. For example, only the chief justice can choose how cases are assigned to the judges of his or her court.

Several institutions have been established to support judicial independence: these include the Canadian Judicial Council, the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs, the National Judicial Institute and the Courts Administration Service. They help keep the government and the judiciary separate in areas like discipline, pay and benefits, and continuing education for judges.

How are judges appointed?

The federal government appoints judges to the federal courts, the superior courts of the provinces/territories, and the Supreme Court of Canada. The Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs administers the advisory committees, representing each province and territory, which assess the qualifications of the lawyers who apply for federal judicial appointments. For example, a candidate for a federal appointment must have been a lawyer for at least ten years to be appointed and must be qualified to practise law in the jurisdiction in question.

The provincial and territorial governments appoint judges to provincial and territorial courts. There are similar eligibility requirements for provincial and territorial appointments.

All federally appointed judges are appointed by the Governor in Council. This consists of the Governor General acting on the advice of the Prime Minister for judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and chief and associate chief justices in the provinces; and on the advice of the Minister of Justice for all other superior court judges.

What training do judges receive?

In general, most judges have spent years in courtrooms or in the practice of law, and have extensive knowledge of court processes and the role of the judge. Once they are appointed, they can refine that knowledge by enrolling in educational programs at both the provincial/territorial and federal levels on all aspects of judging, as well as specific substantive areas of the law. The National Judicial Institute delivers programs for all federal, provincial, and territorial judges. The Institute is funded by each level of government, and regularly offers courses for new judges.

Judicial conduct

Each jurisdiction in Canada has a judicial council that is responsible for promoting and administering professional standards and conduct. For provincially and territorially appointed judges, each province or territory has a judicial council. Its members include judges, lawyers, and members of the general public. Judicial councils develop policies and codes of conduct to provide guidance for judges.

The Canadian Judicial Council (CJC) is responsible for federally appointed judges. It consists of the chief justices and associate chief justices of all of the federal courts and provincial/territorial superior courts. It promotes efficiency, consistency, and quality judicial service in these courts. One of the Council’s tasks is to investigate complaints and allegations of misconduct of federally appointed judges. The CJC has also developed a set of Ethical Principles for Judges. Their purpose is to help judges ensure that they maintain their independence, integrity, and impartiality.

If it finds evidence of serious misconduct, the CJC may recommend to the Minister of Justice that the judge be removed from office. The Minister of Justice may then seek the necessary approval of both the House of Commons and the Senate to have the judge removed from office. The removal processes for provincial/territorial judges vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but are similarly developed to protect judicial independence and ensure that the process operates independently.

Relevant laws relating to the judiciary

The manner in which judges are appointed and administered is governed by Part VII of the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982 and the Judges Act. The Justice Laws website provides the texts of these acts. Provincial and territorial statutes and regulations can be found on the websites of the respective jurisdictions.

The following organizations also support judges in Canada:

NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Universal-Declaration-of-Human-Rights SYMBOL
CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS & FREEDOMS
Universal-Declaration-of-Human-Rights SYMBOL
Universal-Declaration-of-Human-Rights
OFFICIAL5R DECLARATION OF NATIONAL ISRAELITE RIGHTS & FREEDOMS_REDUCED
THE NATIONAL ISRAELITE GOVERNMENT CONSTITUTION